AP Biology assist » Cellular biologic » Cell attributes » Cellular division » understanding Meiosis
Explanation:

Gametes room haploid cell that produced via meiosis. Throughout meiosis, diploid cells divide into four nonidentical haploid daughter cells. Mitosis produces two identical diploid somatic cells from one parent cell.


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Explanation:

Meiosis results in cells with 23 chromosomes (22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome). Keep in mind that these cells are haploid because n=23, and nonidentical, as result of crossing over during prophase I.

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Explanation:

Gametes are made via meiosis i beg your pardon produces cells with n=23 rather of diploid cells. If gametes were created instead by mitosis each gamete would certainly be diploid not haploid. Throughout fertilization that diploid gametes, the zygote would become 4n=92. V each brand-new generation the number of chromosomes would double.


Explanation:

In biology, the term “ploidy” refers to the number of chromosome sets per cell. Haploid cell have half of the number of chromosomes as parent cells, an interpretation that castle only carry a single copy of each gene. Haploid cells room formed during meiosis and, in humans, create gametes, i beg your pardon mature into sperm and also egg cells.


Explanation:

Diploid cell contain two duplicates of every chromosome, because of this containing twice as many (2n) chromosomes together a haploid cabinet (n), i beg your pardon contain only one copy of every chromosome. In humans, diploid somatic cell contain 46 chromosomes, or 23 bag of chromosomes.


Explanation:

Trisomy 21, or down syndrome results as soon as a person individual inherits three copies of chromosome 21, instead of the normal two duplicates (one maternal and also one paternal). This is caused by nondisjunction, or the improper distinction of chromosomes throughout cell division. In the instance of trisomy 21, nondisjunction leader to a failure of chromosome 21 segregation during meiosis (most of the time during anaphase I). This outcomes in one of two people an egg or sperm delivering two duplicates of chromosome 21 rather of one. The zygote created by fertilization creates into an individual that has three duplicates of chromosome 21. Trisomy 21 manifests in physical development delays, pundit disabilities, and distinctive face features. 


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Example concern #37 : expertise Meiosis


Which molecular system is not a feasible cause the nondisjunction?


Possible Answers:

Maternal gametes have actually a higher chance that exhibiting nondisjunction


Error in cytoplasmic partitioning


Older period of an individual leader to weaker cohesin complexes at the centromere


Failure to happen the spindle assembly checkpoint


Correct answer:

Error in cytoplasmic partitioning


Explanation:

Nondisjunction is the improper segregation of chromosomes throughout meiosis or mitosis. The molecular reasons behind nondisjunction space (1) raised rate of nondisjunction in mrs cells, (2) failure to properly pass the spindle assembly checkpoint, and also (3) weakening that the cohesion complex at the centromere as result of age.


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Example inquiry #38 : knowledge Meiosis


Which of the adhering to organisms carry out not perform meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Mammals


Flowering plants


Bacteria


Mosses


Correct answer:

Bacteria


Explanation:

Meiosis is a procedure that produces gametes in sex-related reproduction. Therefore, organisms that undergo sexual reproduction or feature sexual life stages undergo meiosis. Mammals create haploid sperm and also eggs v meiosis, i m sorry fuse to kind a diploid zygote. In mosses, reproduction is dubbed the alternation that generations, meaning that generations alternative between haploid and diploid forms. In this system, meiosis to produce haploid spores throughout the sporophyte generation, i m sorry germinate to form gametophyte precursors. In flower plants, cells in male and also female sex-related organs undergo meiosis to type precursor sex cells, called spores. Prokaryotes, consisting of bacteria, carry out asexual reproduction that does not include the process of meiosis. Types of asexual reproduction include fission, budding, and also fragmentation. In the situation of bacteria, cell reproduce by binary fission, or cellular department without mitotic spindles.


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Example inquiry #39 : understanding Meiosis


What enzyme aids in chromosomal crossing over during prophase i of meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Recombinase


DNA polymerase


Protein kinase


DNA ligase


Correct answer:

Recombinase


Explanation:

During crossing end in prophase i of meiosis, over there is a physical exchange of genetic material in between homologous chromosomes. This exchange occurs at the web page of dual stranded breaks, wherein recombinase enzymes facilitate the intrusion of the various other chromatid. The original strand and invading strand anneal complying with this invasion. When this happens between two chromosomes, the strands type a tetrahedral plan called a Holliday junction. Other recombinase enzymes move the junction under the strands, furthering recombination.


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Example question #40 : expertise Meiosis


What is the term for the structural arrangement of chromatids undergoing crossing over throughout meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Holliday junction


Kinetochore


Telomere


Equatorial plane


Correct answer:

Holliday junction


Explanation:

During prophase i of meiosis, homologous chromosomes exchange hereditary material in a procedure called crossing over. Double stranded breaks and recombinase enzymes facilitate chromatid invasion and annealing. The tetrahedral structure developed through strand invasion between two chromosomes is called the Holliday junction.


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