On march 31 (or April 1) 1732, Austrian composer Joseph Haydn to be born. The composer the the Viennese Classicism was important in the advancement of room music such as the piano trio. His contribute to musical type have earned the the epithets “Father the the Symphony” and “Father the the cable Quartet”.
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“My language is understood all over the world.” – Joseph Haydn top top Mozart’s objection the he speaks too couple of languages to take trip to LondonJoseph Haydn – Youth and Education
Joseph Haydn was born in Markt Rohrau in the Archduchy that Austria, today’s lower Austria, as the 2nd of twelve children of the market judge Mathias Haydn and also his wife Maria Haydn (née Koller). Although no parent could read music notes, Haydn recalls the his family and also neighbours frequently sang together. His musical talent was uncovered when he to be still a tiny child. In 1740 he was noticed through Georg von Reutter, the musical director of St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna, together he travelled through the provinces to uncover talented choir boys. Reutter took Haydn v him come Vienna, whereby he live for nine years as a choir singer. In the cathedral chapel Haydn got singing, piano and violin lessons. Haydn learned a good deal – greatly through self-instruction and also probably simply because he to be a professional musician in ~ a young period in a place that was necessary for music.Working as a Freelancer
In 1749 Haydn’s voice readjust was completed, so the he can no longer sing the high voices in the choir. He was dismissed from his position and also began a career together a freelance musician. In the food of this arduous ten-year period, Haydn pursued countless different activities, including as a valet and accompanist come the Italian composer Nicola Porpora. That endeavoured to fill the gaps in his education and also eventually composed his very first string quartets and also his first opera. Probably in 1757 Haydn obtained his very first important place as music manager of Count knife of Morzin in ~ the chateau Dolní Lukavice near Pilsen. Haydn date his very first symphony, created in Morzin’s service, come this year. As music manager he conducted a small orchestra, and for this ensemble he wrote his very first symphonies, cable trios, cassations and also string quartets.The Princes Esterházy
Haydn to be quickly readily available a comparable position by the Esterházy family, one of the wealthiest and most essential magnate households in the Kingdom the Hungary, originally as vice-kapellmeister. In 1766, Haydn was advocated to an initial Kapellmeister. Now he was also able to compose sacred works. His Stabat Mater, written in 1767, stands the end from other settings that this sequence both in regards to time and instrumentation. Haydn’s huge workload contained composing, conducting the orchestra, playing chamber music for and also with his patron and arranging operas. The Princes Esterházy to be music connoisseurs who appreciated his work and also gave him the an are for his creative development, including daily access to his own tiny orchestra. Throughout the virtually thirty years he spent in the Esterházy house, Haydn created a flood of compositions, and his music style ongoing to develop. His popular in the outside world additionally increased. Gradually Haydn composed as much for publication as for his employer, and also some necessary works the this period, such as the Paris Symphonies (1785-1786) and also the original orchestral version of the Seven critical Words of ours Saviour on the Cross (1786), were commissioned from abroad.Haydn and also Mozart
“Before God and as an ethical man i tell you the your child is the biggest composer known to me one of two people in person or by name: He has taste, and, furthermore, the many profound understanding of composition.”– Joseph Haydn, quoted in a letter indigenous Leopold Mozart come Maria Anna Mozart (1785)
From around 1781 a nearby friendship occurred between Haydn and also Mozart,<1,2,3> whose work he had actually influenced for years. Both composers delighted in playing together in string quartets. Haydn to be impressed by Mozart’s work. He currently wrote under operas and also concerts. Mozart endeavoured to write 6 string quartets in ~ the level Haydn had actually reached through his soon-to-be-completed series op. 33; when Mozart finished, he specialized the quartets come his friend.Finally Independence
Prince Nicholas passed away in 1790; his unmusical follower dismissed all court music and also sent Haydn right into retirement. He accepted a financially rewarding offer native the German impresario Johann Peter Salomon to go to England and perform his brand-new symphonies v a big orchestra. The trips (1791-1792 and also 1794-1795) to be successful. The audience stormed Haydn’s concerts and also he conveniently acquired fame and also fortune. Musically, some of his most famous works were composed for the access time to England, including the Surprise Symphony (Symphony No. 94), the Military Symphony, the London Symphony, the Equestrian Quartet and the Gypsy Trio. Haydn also considered coming to be an English citizen and also settling permanently, but he went back to Vienna.Last Years
Haydn likewise composed the critical nine the a long collection of string quartets, including the Sunrise Quartet and also the Imperial Quartet. In 1800 Haydn’s wife passed away during a continue to be at a spa in Baden near Vienna. Indigenous 1802 Haydn was no much longer physically maybe to create or do publicly early out to an illness he had actually suffered native for part time. Nevertheless, the stream of new musical ideas waiting to be arisen did not prevent him. The ailing Haydn was well looked after ~ by his servants and also received plenty of visits and public honours. Haydn died of old age in 1809, when the French military under Napoleon invaded Vienna. Among his last words was an effort to patience the servants as soon as cannon shots were fired in the neighbourhood.Musical Achievements
Haydn is traditionally pertained to as the “father” that the timeless symphony and string quartet and also was one innovator in the writing of piano sonatas and piano trios. Although various other early timeless composers, such together Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach because that the piano sonata and also Johann Christian Bach and also Leopold Mozart because that the symphony, played critical role, Haydn’s influence is thought about to be predominant. Haydn additionally contributed come the advancement of sonata form from a an easy formal scheme derived from the “Sonata bipartita” come a subtle and flexible type of musical expression. He likewise invented the sonata rondo form, the variation form with 2 themes, and also he to be the very first important composer to present fugue and also contrapuntal aspects into the classical form. A central characteristic the Haydn’s music is the advancement of larger structures indigenous very tiny and straightforward musical motives. The music is frequently formally rather concentrated, and the crucial musical occasions of a movement can unfold quickly. Haydn’s compositional practice affected both Mozart and also Beethoven.
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<5> Perhaps much more than any other composer, Haydn is recognized for the jokes he put into his music. The many famous instance is the sudden loud chord in Symphony No. 94 “Surprise Symphony”.