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Monosaccharides (mono- = “one”; sacchar- = “sweet”) are simple sugars. In monosaccharides, the variety of carbons usually arrays from three to seven. If the sugar has an aldehyde team (the functional group with the structure R-CHO), it is recognized as one aldose, and if it has a ketone team (the functional team with the structure RC(=O)R’), it is known as a ketose. Depending on the number of carbons in the sugar, they additionally may be recognized as trioses (three carbons), pentoses (five carbons), and or hexoses (six carbons). Monosaccharides can exist together a linear chain or as ring-shaped molecules; in aqueous remedies they are usually discovered in ring forms.

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Disaccharides (di- = “two”) type when two monosaccharides experience a dehydration reaction (also well-known as a condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis). Throughout this process, the hydroxyl team of one monosaccharide combines v the hydrogen of one more monosaccharide, publication a molecule that water and forming a covalent bond. A covalent link formed in between a carbohydrate molecule and another molecule (in this case, in between two monosaccharides) is recognized as a glycosidic bond. Glycosidic bonds (also called glycosidic linkages) deserve to be of the alpha or the beta type.