Geology is one over-arching term for a diverse selection of different fields that study. These areas focus top top a much more specific facet of the planet or the solar system (such as volcanology or sedimentology) and also use elements of mathematics and also the other sciences. For example, palaeontology overlaps broadly with biology and also remote sensing uses physics to inspection the Earth over and listed below ground.
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Below is a list, with brief descriptions, of some of the significant fields of examine within geoscience.
| engineering geology |
A wide discipline encompassing the construction of buildings and also dams, slope stability, mine and quarry design, tunnelling, roads, railways, seaside defences and many other aspects of the constructed environment.
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| eco-friendly geology |
The applications of geological principles to mediating or resolving environmental troubles of water and land in or on i beg your pardon people, animals and also plants live, that resulted native human activities or natural processes.
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| Geochemistry |
Explores the chemical composition of rocks and also fluids and the chemical processes operating in ~ the Earth and also on its surface.
| Geochronology |
The examine of identify the age of rocks, fossils and sediments. Absolute geochronology uses radioactive isotope systems, whereas family member geochronology offers palaeomagnetism and also stable isotope systems.
| Geomorphology / Surface processes |
The scientific study the the origin and also evolution of functions formed by chemical and physical procedures on or close come the Earth"s surface.
| Geophysics |
The research of the physics the the Earth, such as its internal structure, earthquakes, gravity and also geomagnetism. It can be deep (aiding expertise of the Earth’s core) or shallow, help to survey historical sites. Geophysics is offered to find for oil and mineral deposits.
| Hydrogeology |
The branch of geology involved with underground and surface water, the movement, behaviour and quality.
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| Igneous Petrology |
The examine of igneous rocks that developed from magma or lava.
|Metamorphic Petrology how rocks are influenced by heat and also pressure to produce the selection of metamorphic rocks and also minerals.|
| herbal hazards |
The features and effects that phenomena such together earthquakes, landslides, floods, volcanoes etc. And also the importance of forecasting, resilience and also minimisation of damage.
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| mmsanotherstage2019.comanic resources |
The major sources of energy are oil, coal and also natural gas, however uranium and different sources such as geothermal energy are likewise areas that employment because that geologists. Mining and quarrying are used to extract metals and also minerals with applications from agriculture to high-tech industry.
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|Oceanography contains ocean chemistry, ocean floor geology, meteorological oceanography and also the research of climate change, as well as ocean waves and also currents.|
|Palaeontology The study of fossils, native dinosaurs to micrommsanotherstage2019.comanisms. Exactly how mmsanotherstage2019.comanisms are kept in the absent record, and also their prestige as signs of past ecological change.|
| Planetary scientific research |
The study of the geology of various other celestial body (such as planets and asteroids) in our solar system and also beyond.
| remote Sensing |
The usage of aerial sensor modern technologies to detect and also classify objects on planet by method of imaging native satellites or aircraft. This is valuable in many fields, from exploration for sources to geology mapping the the planet or various other planets or surveillance geological hazards.
|Sedimentology The examine of sediments, exactly how they accumulate, just how they end up being sedimentary rocks, details they provide about past environments and their definition to energy and also other resources.|
| Seismology |
The study of seismic tide passing with the earth from earthquakes, explosions or regulated sources, which deserve to be offered to suspect earthquake hazards,map planetary interiors or check out for resources.
| Stratigraphy |
The study of the order, nature and also rates of readjust of geological events and processes. This is concerned geological mapping the rocks exposed at the Earth"s surface. Stratigraphy helps to identify the ages and field relations of rocks to build geological maps and also databases.
|structure geology came to with rock movement and also deformation through folding and also faulting, consisting of the research of key tectonics. Just how rocks respond come stress, both natural and man-made.|
| Unconventional power |
This sector has geothermal energy, wind power and also tidal power. Sustainable energy sources is a growing area.
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| Volcanology |
The research of volcanoes, their location, formation and also prediction, varieties of eruptions, and the kinds of rocks produced, plus connected hazards/societal impact.