Key PointsHydrogen bonds are solid intermolecular forces produced when a hydrogen atom bonded to one electronegative atom viewpoints a surrounding electronegative atom.Greater electronegativity the the hydrogen shortcut acceptor will lead to rise in hydrogen-bond strength.The hydrogen bond is one of the strongest intermolecular attractions, but weaker 보다 a covalent or an ionic bond.Hydrogen bonds space responsible because that holding with each other DNA, proteins, and also other macromolecules.

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Termshydrogen bondThe attraction in between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom attached to a extremely electronegative atom (such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine) and another nearby electronegative atom.electronegativityThe propensity of one atom or molecule to attract electrons in the direction of itself, type dipoles, and also thus form bonds.intermolecularA form of interaction between two various molecules.

Forming a Hydrogen Bond

A hydrogen link is the electromagnetic attraction created in between a partly positively charged hydrogen atom attached to a highly electronegative atom and another nearby electronegative atom. A hydrogen bond is a form of dipole-dipole interaction; the is not a true chemistry bond. This attractions deserve to occur between molecules (intermolecularly) or within various parts of a solitary molecule (intramolecularly).

Hydrogen bonding in waterThis is a space-filling round diagram the the interactions in between separate water molecules.

Hydrogen bond Donor

A hydrogen atom attached come a reasonably electronegative atom is a hydrogen shortcut donor. This electronegative atom is usually fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen. The electronegative atom attracts the electron cloud from around the hydrogen nucleus and, by decentralizing the cloud, pipeline the hydrogen atom v a confident partial charge. Since of the tiny size the hydrogen relative to various other atoms and also molecules, the result charge, though only partial, is stronger. In the molecule ethanol, there is one hydrogen atom bonded to one oxygen atom, i beg your pardon is really electronegative. This hydrogen atom is a hydrogen bond donor.

Hydrogen link Acceptor

A hydrogen shortcut results when this strong partial confident charge attractive a lone pair of electron on an additional atom, which becomes the hydrogen bond acceptor. An electronegative atom such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen is a hydrogen bond acceptor, nevertheless of whether it is bonded to a hydrogen atom or not. Better electronegativity that the hydrogen bond agree will create a more powerful hydrogen bond. The diethyl ether molecule consists of an oxygen atom the is no bonded come a hydrogen atom, making that a hydrogen bond acceptor.

Hydrogen shortcut donor and also hydrogen link acceptorEthanol has a hydrogen atom that is a hydrogen shortcut donor since it is external inspection to one electronegative oxygen atom, i m sorry is really electronegative, therefore the hydrogen atom is contempt positive. Diethyl ether has an oxygen atom the is a hydrogen bond acceptor since it is no bonded to a hydrogen atom and also so is contempt negative.

A hydrogen attached come carbon can also participate in hydrogen bonding once the carbon atom is bound to electronegative atoms, together is the instance in chloroform (CHCl3). Together in a molecule wherein a hydrogen is attached to nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, the electronegative atom attractive the electron cloud from roughly the hydrogen cell nucleus and, by decentralizing the cloud, pipeline the hydrogen atom v a hopeful partial charge.

Interactive: Hydrogen BondingExplore hydrogen bond forming between polar molecules, such together water. Hydrogen binding are displayed with dotted lines. Display partial charges and also run the model. Where execute hydrogen bond form? Try changing the temperature the the model. How does the pattern of hydrogen bonding define the lattice that makes up ice cream crystals?

Applications because that Hydrogen Bonds

Hydrogen bonds occur in not natural molecules, such as water, and organic molecules, such together DNA and also proteins. The two complementary strands the DNA are held together through hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotides (A&T, C&G). Hydrogen bonding in water contributes come its distinctive properties, consisting of its high boiling point (100 °C) and surface tension.

Water droplets top top a leafThe hydrogen binding formed between water molecules in water droplets are stronger 보다 the other intermolecular forces in between the water molecules and the leaf, contributing come high surface tension and also distinct water droplets.

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In biology, intramolecular hydrogen bonding is partially responsible for the secondary, tertiary, and also quaternary structures of proteins and also nucleic acids. The hydrogen bonds assist the proteins and also nucleic acids kind and maintain details shapes.

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