When atoms of different elements combine together they form compounds.Familiar link include usual table salt (Sodium Chloride) and also water.Table salt is made from a mix of atom of salt (Na) and chlorine (Cl)in a proportion of 1:1 forming the compound NaCl. Water is a combination ofhydrogen (H) and also oxygen (O) is a ration the 2:1 creating the compound H2O.

You are watching: When an atom of chlorine forms an ionic bond with an atom of sodium, the atom of chlorine

There space different varieties of chemical bonds. Some bonds indicate atransfer of electrons. Others involve a sharing of electrons. Stillother bonds room weak attractions in between molecules. Let"s look in ~ eachtype that bond.

1. Ionic Bonds.

ions are created by atom that have actually non-fulloutermost electron shells in order to become an ext like the noble gases in Group8 of the periodic Table (see section on ions). Someatoms include electrons to obtain a full shell, thus ending up being a an adverse ion.Other atom subtract electrons from your outermost shell, leave a complete shelland an overall positive fee on the ion. In the previous section, we sawthat atoms through fewer than 4 electron in their outermost covering tend to formpositive ions, and those with more than 4 electrons tend to kind negativeions. Ionic bonds type when atoms transfer electrons in between each other,forming ion that are electrically attractive to each other developing a bondbetween them. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is a typical ionic compound.The photo below reflects both a sodium and also a chlorine ion.


Sodium has actually 1 electron in the outermost shell, and chlorine has actually 7electrons. It is simplest for salt to shed its electron and form a +1ion, and for chlorine to acquire an electron, developing a -1 ion. If sodium cantransfer it"s "spare" electron come chlorine (as presented above), bothatoms will fulfill their full outer shell requirements, and an ionic shortcut willbe formed. If big groups of sodium and also chlorine atom bond this way, theresult is a three-dimensional framework with alternative sodium and also chlorineions:


The blue dots room the salt atoms; the pale eco-friendly dots room thelarger chlorine atoms. Ionic bonds between each atom develops a relativelystrong bond and also a three-dimensional, cubic structure. Below is a watch atjust a single layer:


Note that each hopeful sodium ion is next to a negativechlorine ion. Currently imagine this setup continuing exterior in alldirections with hundreds of billions that atoms. Wow!

2. Covalent Bonds.

Sometimes atoms will share electrons instead of transferringthem between the two atoms. This sharing permits both atom to fill theiroutermost shell while forming a very solid bond between the atoms.Elements such as carbon (C) and Silicon (Si) form strong covalent bonds.Below is a picture showing the electron sharing that occurs in the mineraldiamond. Diamonds space made of pure carbon and also its the method that the carbonatoms space bonded that renders diamond the hardest substance.


Each carbon atom has actually 4 electron (blue dots) in its outershell. This allows the atom to share electrons through 4 various other carbon atomssurrounding it (as the middle carbon atom is doing). Each of these in turnwill re-superstructure the staying 3 electron with surrounding carbon atom beside, aboveand listed below it, and those with other carbon atoms, etc., developing a interlocking,three-dimensional network of tightly external inspection carbon atoms. Similarly,covalent bonding between silicon and oxygen atoms makes solid bonds that kind alarge group of minerals referred to as silicates (more top top those later).

3. Metallic and also Van der Waals Bonds.

Metallic bonds type when the external shell electrons are sharedbetween bordering atoms. Unequal covalent bonding however, over there areinsufficient number of electron in most steel atoms (such as copper or silver)to type pure covalent bonds. Therefore, the electrons are mutual amongstall the nearest neighbor steel ions, developing a metallic bond. This strangearrangement the "metallic ions is a sea of electrons" offers metalstheir particular physical properties.

Metallic bonds are also explained by tape theory. Bandtheory claims that very closely packed atoms have overlapping electron energy levelsresulting in a conduction "band" within the electron are free toroam in between atoms, for this reason bonding lock together. For more information ~ above metallic bonds and bandtheory, view this internet site.

Van der Waals bonds space weak binding that kind due to theattraction that the confident nuclei and negative electron clouds of very closely packedatoms. This attraction is opposed by the repulsive force of the electronclouds and also the repulsive force of bordering nuclei. However, theattraction is stronger than the full repulsive forces, leaving a residual, weakattraction. Van der Waals bonding is crucial in minerals such asgraphite and also clay minerals.

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