Key principles

The attractions in between the protons and electrons of atoms can cause an electron come move completely from one atom come the other. As soon as an atom loser or benefit an electron, that is dubbed an ion. The atom the loses one electron becomes a confident ion.The atom the gains an electron i do not care a negative ion.A optimistic and an adverse ion attract each other and form an ionic bond.

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Students will look at animations and also make drawings of the ionic bonding of salt chloride (NaCl). College student will see that both ionic and also covalent bonding start with the attractions of protons and electrons in between different atoms. But in ionic bonding, electrons are transferred native one atom to the other and also not mutual like in covalent bonding. College student will use Styrofoam balls to do models of the ionic bonding in sodium chloride (salt).


Students will have the ability to explain the procedure of the formation of ions and also ionic bonds.


Download the student activity sheet, and distribute one every student when specified in the activity. The activity sheet will serve as the “Evaluate” ingredient of each 5-E great plan.


Be certain you and the student wear correctly fitting goggles.

Materials because that Each Group

Black paperSaltCup v salt native evaporated saltwaterMagnifier permanent marker

Materials because that Each Student

2 tiny Styrofoam balls2 large Styrofoam balls2 toothpicks

Note: In an ionically bonded substance such together NaCl, the smallest ratio of optimistic and negative ions bonded with each other is called a “formula unit” quite than a “molecule.” Technically speaking, the term “molecule” describes two or more atoms that space bonded with each other covalently, no ionically. For simplicity, you can want to use the ax “molecule” for both covalently and ionically bonded substances.


Show an computer animation to present the procedure of ionic bonding.

Project the animation Ionic shortcut in sodium chloride.

Remind students the in covalent bonding, atoms share electrons. However there is another form of bonding whereby atoms don’t share, yet instead either take it or offer up electrons. This is referred to as ionic bonding. This animation shows a really simplified model of how sodium and also chloride ions space formed.

Note: In bespeak to simplify the model of ionic bonding, a single atom that sodium and chlorine room shown. In reality, the chlorine atom would certainly be bonded to an additional chlorine atom as part of the gas Cl2. The sodium atom would be among billions of trillions of salt atoms bonded together as a solid. The combination of these substances is a facility reaction between the atom of the 2 substances. The animation shows solitary separated atoms to show the idea of exactly how ions and ionic bonds space formed.

Explain what happens during the animation.

Tell students the the attraction of the protons in the sodium and also chlorine for the other atom’s electrons brings the atoms closer together. Chlorine has actually a more powerful attraction for electrons than sodium (shown by the more thick arrow). At some allude during this process, one electron from the sodium is moved to the chlorine. The salt loses one electron and also the chlorine gains an electron.

Tell college student that when an atom benefit or loser an electron, it i do not care an ion.

Sodium loses an electron, leaving it with 11 protons, but only 10 electrons. Because it has actually 1 much more proton than electrons, sodium has actually a charge of +1, making it a optimistic ion.Chlorine profit an electron, leaving it v 17 protons and also 18 electrons. Because it has actually 1 much more electron 보다 protons, chlorine has actually a charge of −1, making that a an unfavorable ion. As soon as ions form, atoms get or lose electrons till their outer power level is full.For example, once sodium loses its one external electron indigenous the third energy level, the second level becomes the new outer energy level and also is full. Since these electrons room closer to the nucleus, castle are much more tightly held and will not leave. When chlorine benefit an electron, its third energy level i do not care full. Second electron cannot join, due to the fact that it would must come in in ~ the fourth power level. This far from the nucleus, the electron would not feel sufficient attraction native the protons to it is in stable. Then the optimistic sodium ion and an unfavorable chloride ion tempt each other and form an ionic bond. The ion are much more stable when they space bonded 보다 they were as individual atoms.

Have students describe the procedure of ionic bonding in salt chloride ~ above their task sheet.

Give each student an task sheet.

Have students compose a brief caption under each snapshot to define the procedure of covalent bonding and answer the first three questions. The rest of the task sheet will certainly either be completed together a class, in groups, or individually relying on your instructions.

Project the photo Ionic shortcut in sodium chloride.

Review through students the process of ionic bonding extended in the animation.

Help students compose a brief caption beside each snapshot to describe the process of ionic bonding in sodium and also chloride ions.

Sodium and chlorine atoms are close to each other.The protons of the two atoms entice the electron of the various other atom. The thicker arrowhead shows that chlorine has a stronger attraction because that electrons 보다 sodium has.During the interactions between the atoms, the electron in sodium"s outer power level is moved to the outer energy level of the chlorine atom.Since sodium lost an electron, it has 11 protons, yet only 10 electrons. This makes sodium a hopeful ion through a charge of +1. Because chlorine obtained an electron it has actually 17 protons and 18 electrons. This provides chloride a an adverse ion v a charge of −1.The hopeful sodium ion and negative chloride ion attract one another. They do an ionic bond and form the ionic compound NaCl.Explore

Have students watch actual salt chloride crystals and relate their form to the molecule model.

This two-part task will aid students watch the relationship between the setup of ion in a model of a salt chloride crystal and also the cubic form of actual sodium chloride crystals.

Teacher preparation

The day prior to the lesson, dissolve around 10 grams of salt in 50 mL of water. Usage Petri dishes or use scissors to cut down 5 or 6 clear plastic cup to make shallow plastic dishes. Pour enough saltwater to simply cover the bottom of every dish (1 for each group). Leaving the dishes overnight come evaporate so that new salt crystals will certainly be produced.

Materials for each group

Black paperSaltCup with salt native evaporated saltwaterMagnifier long-term marker

Materials because that each student

2 little Styrofoam balls2 huge Styrofoam balls2 toothpicks

Procedure, part 1

Observe salt chloride crystals.Place a few grains the salt ~ above a item of black paper. Usage your magnifier to look very closely at the salt.

Have students develop a 3-dimensional model of salt chloride.

Each student will make 1 unit of salt chloride. Students in each group will placed their salt chloride systems together. You can assist the groups incorporate their structures into a course model the a sodium chloride crystal.

Procedure, component 2

Make NaCl units.Use the mite to put a “−” top top the huge balls which stand for chloride ions.Use the marker to put a “+” ~ above the little balls, which represent sodium ions.Break 2 toothpicks in half. Use one of the half-toothpicks to affix the centers the the small and huge ions together to make a unit of sodium chloride (NaCl). Do the very same thing with the other small and big ball.

Use one more half-toothpick to affix the 2 NaCl units in a right line as shown.

Put NaCl ions with each other to do one great of ions.Contribute your line of ions to her group and arrange castle to make a 4×4 square of ions.

Use half-toothpicks to attach the end of every line to organize the ion together. You only require to ar toothpicks in the balls at the end of each line.

Build a class sodium chloride crystal.

Give her group’s class of ions to your teacher. Your teacher will stack these to construct a model of a sodium chloride crystal.


Point out that everywhere you look at on the crystal, a salt ion and also a chloride ion are constantly surrounded by the oppositely fee ion. These opposite charges hold the ions with each other in a crystal.


Ask students

Based top top the method sodium and chloride ions bond together, why space salt crystals shaped choose cubes?The size and arrangement that the ions creates a cube ~ above the molecule level. Due to the fact that the pattern repeats over and also over again in the very same way, the shape stays the same also when the decision becomes the normal dimension that we have the right to see.Extend

Show students how calcium and also chlorine atom bond to kind the ionic link calcium chloride.

Tell students that there is an additional common substance dubbed calcium chloride (CaCl2). That is the salt the is offered on icy sidewalks and also roads. Define that when calcium and also chlorine react they develop ions, favor sodium and also chlorine, however the calcium ion is various from the salt ion.

Ask students:

What ions carry out you think CaCl2 is make of? One calcium ion and two chloride ions.

Project the computer animation Calcium chloride Ionic Bond.

Point the end that the calcium loses two electrons, ending up being a +2 ion. Every of the 2 chlorine atoms gains among these electrons, make them each a −1 ion. Help students realize the 1 calcium ion bonds with 2 chloride ion to type calcium chloride (CaCl2), i m sorry is neutral.

Some atoms acquire or lose an ext than 1 electron. Calcium loser 2 electrons when it becomes an ion. Once ions come with each other to kind an ionic bond, they constantly join in numbers that exactly cancel the end the hopeful and negative charge.

Project the photo Calcium chloride Ionic Bond.

Review with students the process of ionic bonding extended in the animation.

Have students create a short caption in ~ each snapshot to explain the process of ionic bonding in sodium and also chloride ions.

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One calcium and also two chlorine are close to each other.The proton of the calcium atom tempt the electron from the chlorine atom. The proton of the 2 chlorine atoms tempt the electrons from the calcium atom much more strongly as presented by the more thick arrows.During the interactions in between the atoms, the 2 electrons in calcium"s outer energy level are transferred to the outer energy level of each of the chlorine atoms.Since calcium lost two electrons, it has 20 protons, but only 18 electrons. This provides calcium a hopeful ion with a fee of 2+. Due to the fact that each chlorine atom got an electron, castle each have actually 17 protons and 18 electrons. This provides each chloride a an unfavorable ion v a fee of −1.Oppositely charged ions lure each other, developing an ionic bond. The bonded ions are more stable 보다 the individual atoms were.