The Renaissance to be a fervent period of europe cultural, artistic, political and also economic “rebirth” following the middle Ages. Generally defined as following from the 14th century come the 17th century, the Renaissance promoted the rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature and art. Several of the greatest thinkers, authors, statesmen, scientists and also artists in human thrived throughout this era, while worldwide exploration opened up brand-new lands and also cultures to europe commerce. The Renaissance is attributed with bridging the gap between the middle Ages and modern-day civilization.

From Darkness come Light: The Renaissance begins

During the center Ages, a duration that take it place in between the loss of old Rome in 476 A.D. And the start of the 14th century, europeans made few advances in science and art.

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Also well-known as the “Dark Ages,” the era is regularly branded together a time the war, ignorance, famine and also pandemics such together the black Death.

Some historians, however, believe that such grim depictions the the Middle eras were substantially exaggerated, though numerous agree the there was relatively little for for ancient Greek and Roman philosophies and learning in ~ the time.

READ MORE: 6 factors the Dark eras Weren't for this reason Dark


During the 14th century, a social movement dubbed humanism began to gain momentum in Italy. Amongst its many principles, humanism supported the idea that male was the center of his very own universe, and also people should take on human accomplishments in education, classic arts, literature and science.

In 1450, the development of the Gutenberg printing press permitted for improved interaction throughout Europe and for concepts to spread an ext quickly.

As a an outcome of this advance in communication, little-known messages from early humanist authors such together those by Francesco Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio, which advocated the rejuvenation of classic Greek and also Roman society and values, to be printed and distributed come the masses.

Additionally, numerous scholars believe advancements in worldwide finance and also trade impacted culture in Europe and set the stage for the Renaissance.

Medici family

The Renaissance started in Florence, Italy, a location with a rich social where affluent citizens might afford to support budding artists.

Members the the powerful Medici family, which rule Florence for more than 60 years, were famed backers of the movement.

Great Italian writers, artists, politicians and also others declared that they to be participating in an intellectual and artistic transformation that would certainly be much different from what they experienced during the Dark Ages.

The movement an initial expanded to various other Italian city-states, such as Venice, Milan, Bologna, Ferrara and also Rome. Then, throughout the 15th century, Renaissance concepts spread native Italy to France and then throughout western and also northern Europe.

Although other European countries experienced their Renaissance later than Italy, the effects were still revolutionary.

Renaissance Geniuses

Some of the most famous and also groundbreaking Renaissance intellectuals, artists, scientists and writers incorporate the likes of:

Giotto (1266-1337): Italian painter and also architect whose an ext realistic depictions of human emotions influenced generations of artists. Ideal known for his frescoes in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua.

William Tyndale (1494–1536): English biblical translator, humanist and scholar burned at the stake because that translating the holy bible into English.

William Byrd (1539/40–1623): English composer known for his advancement of the English madrigal and also his spiritual organ music.

Renaissance Art, Architecture and Science

Art, architecture and also science were carefully linked throughout the Renaissance. In fact, it was a distinct time once these areas of examine fused together seamlessly.

For instance, artists prefer da Vinci incorporated scientific principles, such together anatomy into their work, so they might recreate the human body with extraordinary precision.

Architects such as Filippo Brunelleschi studied math to accurately engineer and also design immense buildings with expansive domes.

Scientific explorations led to major shifts in thinking: Galileo and Descartes presented a brand-new view the astrology and mathematics, when Copernicus proposed the the Sun, not the Earth, was the center of the solar system.

Renaissance art was defined by realism and also naturalism. Artist strived come depict people and also objects in a true-to-life way.

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They supplied techniques, such as perspective, shadows and also light to include depth to their work. Emotion was one more quality the artists tried to infuse right into their pieces.

Some of the most famous creative works the were produced during the Renaissance include:

The Mona Lisa (Da Vinci)The critical Supper (Da Vinci)Statue that David (Michelangelo)The birth of Venus (Botticelli)The creation of Adam (Michelangelo)

Renaissance exploration

While plenty of artists and also thinkers supplied their talents to express brand-new ideas, some Europeans required to the seas come learn more about the world roughly them. In a duration known together the period of Discovery, several essential explorations were made.

Voyagers launched expeditions to take trip the whole globe. Castle discovered new shipping routes to the Americas, India and the far East and also explorers trekked throughout areas that weren’t fully mapped.

Famous journeys to be taken by Ferdinand Magellan, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci (after whom America is named), Marco Polo, Ponce de Leon, Vasco Núñez de Balboa, Hernando De Soto and also other explorers.

READ MORE: The age of Exploration

Renaissance religion

Humanism urged Europeans to inquiry the function of the roman Catholic church during the Renaissance.

As an ext people learned just how to read, write and interpret ideas, they began to very closely examine and also critique religion as lock knew it. Also, the to press press permitted for texts, consisting of the Bible, to be quickly reproduced and widely review by the people, themselves, because that the first time.

In the 16th century, martin Luther, a German monk, led the Protestant improvement – a revolutionary activity that led to a break-up in the Catholic church. Luther questioned countless of the methods of the church and also whether lock aligned with the teachings the the Bible.

As a result, a new type of Christianity, recognized as Protestantism, was created.

End of the Renaissance

Scholars think the death of the Renaissance was the result of numerous compounding factors.

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By the finish of the 15th century, plenty of wars had plagued the Italian peninsula. Spanish, French and German intruders battling because that Italian territories brought about disruption and instability in the region.