L> The Food Chain

Life ~ above the Food Chain

Have you ever wondered why us can"t it seems ~ to feed the world"shungry? It"s a facility issue, however it might surprise you come learnthat it"s not because there isn"t sufficient food; currentagricultural capacity, based upon current technology, exists to feeding as many as 10 exchange rate people.The Earth"s population is "only" around 7 billion. The huge question really is: If we want to feed everyone,what would everyone must eat? to answer that question, download this excel spreadsheet and try plugging in some numbers.

Example: One acre the a grain crop could be offered to feed cattle, and then the cattle could be supplied to feed people. If 50% that the power is shed to the cattle, you can feed double as many human being if friend fed lock the serial directly. Another method of looking in ~ it is that it would only take a fifty percent acre of soil to feeding the world grain, however a entirety acre if you feeding the grain to the cattle and also the cattle to the people. A typical practice to grow livestock faster is to feed them floor up pet protein. This way that when we eat the meat native the cow, we"re in ~ the tertiary level or higher. The lose of energy between trophic level may additionally be also higher. Recent studies indicate that only ~10% of energy is converted to biomass from one trophic level to the next!

The Food Chain: The answer has to do with trophic levels. Together you probably know, the biology at the basic of the food chain are photosynthetic; plants on land and phytoplankton (algae) in the oceans. This organisms are dubbed the producers, and also they acquire their energy directly from sunlight and also inorganic nutrients. The organisms the eat the producers are the main consumers. They tend to be small in size and also there are countless of them. The major consumers space herbivores (vegetarians). The organisms that eat the main consumers room meat eaters (carnivores) and are dubbed the second consumers. The an additional consumers have tendency to it is in larger and also fewer in number. This continues on, every the means up come the height of the food chain. About 50% that the energy (possibly as much as 90%) in food is shed at each trophic level when an biology is eaten, so it is less effective to it is in a higher order customer than a primary consumer. Therefore, the energy transfer indigenous one trophic level to the next, up the food chain, is like a pyramid; broader at the base and narrower in ~ the top. As such inefficiency, over there is only sufficient food for a couple of top level consumers, yet there is numerous food for herbivores lower down on thefood chain. There are fewer consumers 보다 producers.

Land and aquatic energy pyramids

Trophic Level Desert biome Grassland biology Pond Biome ocean Biome Producer (Photosynthetic) Primary consumer (Herbivore) an additional Consumer (Carnivore) Tertiary customer (Carnivore) Quaternary customer (Carnivore)
Cactus Grass Algae Phytoplankton
Butterfly Grasshopper Insect Larva Zooplankton
Lizard Mouse Minnow Fish
Snake Snake Frog Seal
Roadrunner Hawk Raccoon Shark
Food Web: At each trophic level, there may be many more species than indicated in the table above. Food webs have the right to be very complex. Food availability may vary seasonally or by time that day. An organism favor a mouse could play two roles, eating insects on occasion (making it a secondary consumer), but likewise dining directly on plants (making the a main consumer). A food net of who eats who in the southwest American desert biome could look something prefer this:

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image source: http://iqa.evergreenps.org/science/biology/ecosystem_files/food-web.jpg

Keystone Species: In part food webs, there is one vital "keystone species" ~ above which the entire system depends. In the same way that one arch collapses when the keystone is removed, an entire food chain have the right to collapse if there is a decline in a keystone species. Often, the keystone types is a predator the keeps the herbivores in check, and prevents them indigenous overconsuming the plants, causing a massive die off. As soon as we remove top predators choose grizzly bears, orca whales, or wolves, for example, over there is evidence that it affects not just the food species, yet even the physics environment.

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Apex Predators: These varieties are at the height of the food chain and the healthy adults have actually no organic predators. The young and old may in some cases be preyed upon, but they commonly succumb come disease, hunger, the results of aging, or some combination of them. The additionally suffer from competition v humans, that often eliminate the peak predators in stimulate to have actually exclusive access to the prey species, or v habitat destruction, which is one indirect kind of competition.Decomposers: once organisms die, they room sometimes eaten by scavengers yet the staying tissues are broken down by fungi and also bacteria. In this way, the nutrients that were part of the body are returned to the bottom the the trophic pyramid.Bioaccumulation: In addition to being less energy efficient, eating higher up the food chain has its risks. Pesticides and also heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, and lead tend to be consumed in small quantities by the primary consumers. These toxins obtain stored in the fat of the animal. Once this animal is consumed by a secondary consumer, these toxins become more concentrated because second consumers eat lots of main consumers, and also often live longer too. Swordfish and also tuna are close to the top of the aquatic food chain and, when we eat them, we room consuming all of the toxins that they have built up over a lifetime. Because that this reason, pregnant women room advised against eating this foods.Solve the following troubles mathematically.1. Given: 10 billion civilization can it is in fed a straightforward vegetarian diet that is nutritionally complete. How many human being could we feed in ~ the American standard-a tertiary level of consumption (3rd orderconsumers?). 50% that the power is lost by each greater level.2. If there room 250 million civilization in the joined States many ofthem eat at the Tertiary (3rd) level of consumption, how manypeople can we feed at the major level?3.

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Some pets like sharks are 5th order consumers! Sharks eattuna that eat mackerel the eat herring the eat copepods the eatdiatoms. If we were to do the reasonable assumption that each ofthese pets eats 2 that its food each day, how numerous organisms passed away tofeed the shark in one day?