Yesterday and Today
On-line version ISSN 2309-9003Print version ISSN 2223-0386
Y&T n.17 Vanderbijlpark Jul. 2017http://dx.doi.mmsanotherstage2019.com/10.17159/2223-0386/2017/n17a7
Conmomentary relevance - a category of historic scientific research and also of the didactics of history and also its results in teacher training
Friedrich-Alexander-UniversitätErlangen-Nürnberg, Germany type of e-mail: elisabeth.erdmann
Contemporary relevance as a category of the didactics of background teaching includes not just historical facts which can be understood the causes of present-day troubles and also circumstances however likewise those which, on the grounds of the values or principles innate in them, are identical, indistinguishable, or contrary to present-day problems or notions. A conmessage of meaning is created in between present and also previous which provides climb to orientation knowledge, making it possible to reflect on services to present-day problems, to think of options to habitual contemporary fads of thinking and also living, and also to construct future perspectives. Selected examples of the various facets of contemporary relevance are debated, such as the problem in between Israelis and Arabs in the Middle East, and the function of religion at miscellaneous times in history. The results emerging from this category for both the didactic and also subject-certain training of History teachers will be debated, as well as the nature of the relationship in between subject-certain and didactic training.
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Keywords: Conshort-term relevance; Conmessage of definition in between current and also past; History; Didactics of History; History teacher training; History lessons; Israel and also the Palestinians, State and religious beliefs.
Anyone that has taught history has actually competent exactly how interested students are as soon as they are able to touch an old object choose a Neolithic axe or a fragment of Roman ceramic. They are therefore motivated to put concerns around the object, about the product and also the duration from which the object originates. If along with students you visit Celtic or Roguy continues to be or a medieval castle in the vicinity, a similar result is accomplished. It is crucial that the students not just look at the stays, yet have actually the chance to check out them, to take their measurements and also to discuss them.1 In this way continues to be from times long previous come to be component of the students" resides.
These examples display exactly how past and existing are connected. It is not surpclimbing that in 1992 an skilled teacher stated: "Historical contents without modern relevance are irappropriate for students and also cannot be taught".2
Before examples for modern relevance in background and also in background lessons are offered and aftermath for history teacher training presented, it is vital to identify what function contemporary relevance plays in History as scientific research and also in History didactics.
Development because the late 1960s
Throughout the late 1960s and also the beginning of the 1970s historians and history education specialists were already discussing contemporary relevance, because History as science at university as well as background teaching at institution were controversial.3 How could it be justified to teach History at university and also at college, given that universities and also colleges were socially relevant and also had actually an impact on existing society? Several posts were published about why history must be taught, not just at colleges however likewise in institutions.4 In these short articles contemporary relevance played an important part. Historians and background education experts made proposals in order to outline the various work of History as scientific research and also of teaching history. Only the arguments for contemporary relevance will be discussed listed below.
Caoffers of present-day problems and circumstances
Primarily, historical understanding is essential for the understanding and also explacountry of contemporary phenomena and ultimately their historic causes and also breakthroughs. As a dominance this would attract the attention largely to phenomena of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, such as the Middle East problem or the Germale department. But various other topics are rooted additionally in the previous, for example the dividing of the Roman Catholic Church by the Redevelopment.5
A conmessage of meaning between existing and also past
Conshort-term relevance has not just the causes of contemporary difficulties yet additionally those which, on the grounds of the worths or concepts inherent in them, are the same, equivalent, or contrary to contemporary problems or notions. A conmessage of definition is developed between existing and previous which offers increase to orientation knowledge, making it possible to reflect on options to contemporary troubles, to think of alternatives to habitual modern fads of thinking and living, and to build future perspectives. In addition, History as scientific research can administer categories of and also insights into object areas which are similar to the current, but at the very same time remote enough not to evoke emotional barriers. Also, central categories of political decision-making procedures favor the scopes of action of states of various dimension can be better understood from specific temporal ranges and compared through the present. It is to be listed that with a comparichild or an analogy between existing and past, only the characteristics of the corresponding eras and also the historic distinction should be taken into consideration. Only then is a context of meaning as explained created.6Rohlfes specifies contemporary relevance as a category of historic science and also of historic didactics. According to him, modern relevance comes into play just "if you have empirical evidence for the connection between previous and also present". He is convinced that the current is illuminated by the past and also the past by the current.7 A still an extra essential function as regards contemporary relevance comes up in the didactics of history quite than in historical scientific research. Because didactics of history needs not only framework and also create, genesis and function of historical consciousness, however in its practical location additionally takes into consideration the respective addressees, in History lessons the learners look and discuss which aims, contents and approaches are to be found. Therefore modern relevance is identified in the didactics of background, not just as a case connection and also a context of definition in between past and existing, but it likewise requirements to be established what meaning the connection has for the present and also life reality of the corresponding addressees. For school kids modern relevance is a kind of visibility relationship, bereason they desire to recognize what meaning background has for them, which is why they should resolve it. In enhancement, in the context of meaning in past and current, it is crucial for the addressees to not just perceive the activity motives in the resources and also interpretation categories, however additionally to understand and describe them. Finally, from it complies with the orientation towards the previous which affects the present and future.8 To create a context of interpretation of the miscellaneous dates, a so-referred to as "longitudinal section" is frequently argued as a subject-particular teaching procedure.9
Cause connection and a conmessage interpretation in between previous and existing can be made clear in different and also multiple sensations of history. Of course, contemporary relevance deserve to likewise encompass testimonia of the historical society favor stays, monuments, anniversaries etc. These are purposely not presented as an example, bereason they regularly differ on neighborhood level. Their inclusion in the lessons should therefore happen according to the sphere of recommendation of the addressees. An example of cause link and also among context definition between past and existing will be outlined next, before conclusions are introduced for background teacher training.
Instances for modern relevance
Caoffers of today"s disputes in the past: Israel and also the Palestinians
An end to the conflict in between Israel and also the Palestinians is currently not in sight, although there have actually been attempts to orchestrate reconciliation. However before, armed hostilities and also battles flare up constantly. Solution possibilities have extended a broad area. How did it come about that in the location of the previous Ottomale Realm Arabs and Jews clash so bitterly?10
The Middle East belonged to the Ottoguy Realm. However before, in 1882 Egypt was taken by British troops and also throughout the last quarter of the nineteenth century Arab nationalism arised in the communities of Egypt and also Syria. In Egypt this nationalism was directed against the English, and also in the Arabian countries versus Turkish ascendancy. In 1914 a complete of 700,000 Arabs and 80,000 Jews, among them about 12,000 Zionists, resided in Palestine. The term "Zionism" emerged only at the end of the nineteenth century. Theodor Herzl (1860 - 1904) is concerned as its founder; his principles were taken up by the already existing "Zionist" motion. Herzl was plainly mindful of the Arabs living in Palestine, however he can just imagine a peaceful and also prosperous immigration for the totality Palestine.11 Also, the Zionists did not desire to hurt or provoke the Arabs.12 For centuries the Arabs and the Jews resident in Palestine had actually been living together peacefully. However, this adjusted in the decade before the First World War as soon as the number of Jewish immigrants thrived perceptibly. Until that time the principle "conquest by work", i.e. substituting Arabian employees through Jewish ones, had actually been unknown in Palestine.
During the First World War British federal government officials made assures and also concluded agreements with the Arabs, via the Zionists and also through French government officials. These assures or agreements were partially rather vague, so that they could be interpreted in a different way. In addition, they contradicted each various other. Here we have actually the birth of the Center East problem. How did it come about?
During the First World War the Center East as 3rd front obtained in importance. The west side of the Arabian peninsula was strategically considerable for Great Britain in order to guard the Suez-Aden line. Emir Hussein, the leader of Al Hijaz and the most prominent Arab prince, wanted to cost-free himself from Ottoman domination and also expand his ascendancy over the whole Arabia. He readily available the British Realm an alliance in order to get his self-reliance with the aid of the Brilots. Because he had to present consideration for the Arab nationalists, the condition for an Arab upclimbing to take area, was the acknowledgment of an Arab great Empire which would certainly encshed today"s state areas of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, the Arab peninsula (without Aden), the sheikdoms in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia and Palestine, then part of Syria. In this regard his boy Faisal negotiated via Sir Henry MacMahon, the British High Commissioner in Cairo. MacMahon, yet, had to consult the Foregime Office, who could and also did not desire to go over the head of the French, who were additionally exceptionally interested in this location. The French government said key negotiations in between France and Britain about the subdivision of the area to protect English and also French interemainder locations. From the British side diplomat Mark Sykes and also from the French side Francois Gemmsanotherstage2019.comes-Picot, secretary of the French embassy in London, were asked to negotiate. On 16 May 1916 they reached the adhering to conclusion: France would receive Syria and also Lebanon, and England would certainly obtain Mesopotamia as well as Palestine and also Jordan as interest areas.13
Under the impression of the German-Turkish advance to the Suez Canal, MacMahon was urged to hurry, bereason Britain wanted the Arabs" active assistance. He sent out an correct letter to Hussein on 14 October 1915 in which he expressed his hope for "a firm and also lasting alliance" between Great Britain and the Arabs. Certainly, "the 2 districts of Mersina and also Alexandretta and also parts of Syria lying to the west of the districts of Damascus, Homs, Hama and Aleppo cannot be sassist to be purely Arab, and also must be excluded from the borders demanded".14 In his reply on 1 January 1916 Hussein pointed out that he would deviate from his needs only out of consideration for France. He might assume that the Arab excellent Realm was guaranteed, and also that tbelow would certainly just be an dispute about the Syrian seaside locations. In the summer of 1916 the upclimbing against Ottoguy rule commenced. Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence instructed Faisal"s Bedouins in the art of guerrilla warfare and they were gave via British money and also French weapons. His allude of check out, which he expressed in his book "The Seven Pillars of Wisdom", has to be review critically.15
The third agreement affiliated Chaim Weizmann (1874 - 1952). He had actually arisen a procedure to create larger quantities of acetone, which was extremely important for the armaments industry. During the First World War the British Admiralty provided him through a research laboratory and also in this method he came into contact through leading political leaders whose support he could win for Zionist plans, amongst others Winston Churchill, the First Lord of the Admiralty. Prime Minister Lloyd Gemmsanotherstage2019.come and also his Foreign Minister, Arthur Lord Balfour, were encouraged in 1917 that the Jewish concern had actually to be supported; considerations of the British Middle East strategy more than likely additionally played a critical role. If a Jewish neighborhood in Palestine was under a British protectoprice, the Suez Canal might be safeguarded from the East and also the overland route from Egypt to India can be opened up. The British Zionists, being in call through Amerihave the right to like-minded people that had in the meantime won over President Wilkid and various other influential political leaders to their aim, demanded and derived a declaration which had been submitted to, and approved by, the British Cabinet. This decision, that a national residence might be establimelted in Palestine for the Jewish civilization, was made well-known in the develop of a letter by the Fopower Minister, Lord Bal4 on 2 November 1917.16
The Bal4 Declaration was neither compatible via the MacMahon-Faisal-letters (1915/16) nor with the Sykes-Picot agreement (1916). Until this day the State of Israel bases its claim for visibility and also legal ideal on this declaration. It is therefore important to look at it more closely. Lord Rothsson, friendly through Weizmann, the Upper Housage member and Vice-President of the British mmsanotherstage2019.comanisation of Jewish Communities, had in July 1917 presented Lord Bal4 via the draft of a declaration in which the British federal government would recognise Palestine as the national home of the Jewish human being. The draft therefore demanded Palestine as a whole. However, Bal4 in his reply only described the establishment "of a nationwide home in Palestine". In addition, he insisted on respecting the civil liberties of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine. The Zionists had actually demanded the refacility of a national house in Palestine, however the declaration mentioned only "establishment". Re-establishment would have meant the acknowledgment of historic rights in the entirety of Palestine. The expansion of the current state of Israel does not, in Israeli see, contradict the Balfour Declaration, because the historical Palestine extfinished over components of Syria and Transjordan and also for the British in 1917 it was additionally part of Transjordan.17
In 1919 negotiations in between Weizmann as spokesguy for the Palestinian Jews and Emir Faisal in Damascus, who actually regulated an Arab great Realm, led to an agreement. With this Faisal apshowed the competence of Weizmann to speak for the Palestinian Jews. Provided that changes should take place with regard to the foreseeable freedom of the Arabs, Faisal had made the reservation that he could not be held accountable for the non-realization of the agreement. This in fact transpired. In July 1920 France expelled Faisal from Syria, after which the British set up him as king in Iraq and also he came to be anti-Zionist. Something similar occurred to his brother Abdullah that was mounted in Jordan as administrator, later on as Emir. France obtained the mandate over Syria and Lebanon, and also Great Britain the manday over Mesopotamia as well as over Palestine.
In the conmessage of this article, the better development until the present cannot be complied with, however it might have end up being clear that the various guarantees of England also and France throughout the First World War are irreconcilable. The local populace in the Middle East were not consulted, quite they were offered. Also, the says developed tbelow by the Great Powers were without legitimacy, which has an effect till today.18
Conmessage of definition in between past and also present: State and religion
Topically the connection between the state and also religion is increasingly discussed. Hence it is logical to outline a longitudinal section about this template from Romale antiquity till the current in order to look at the partnership in between polytheistic faith and the state, and the relationship between monotheistic religions and the state through the centuries, e.g. Judaism, Christianity and also Islam.
Polytheism was the norm in antiquity. Hence the Romans worshipped a multitude of gods and also goddesses. For them it was essential that on specific holidays sacrifices had to be made in a standard way and also they additionally oboffered signs in nature, such as the flight of birds and lightning. Due to the fact that they venerated so many kind of divine beings they permitted various other human being to adore their very own deities. Often they tried to harmonize their gods with foreign gods. The Romans therefore corresponded Zeus, the supreme god of the Greeks, with Jupiter, their supreme god. If there was no correspondence via the Romale gods, foreign gods were obtained to preserve the name, as via the Greek god Apollo. They tried to equate Oriental, Celtic and also Teutonic gods or divine beings which were worshipped in a details region only through their very own gods, e.g. the name of the Celtic god Grannus, who was attributed via the gift of curing human being was included to Apollo, who besides various other characteristics, had actually the same attribute. Inscriptions exist containing the name Apollo Grannus.19 If it was not possible to equate international and also Romale deities, the Romans also venerated international gods prefer Epona, the Celtic goddess responsible for steeds.20 The major point was that all citizens of the Roguy Realm thought about Jupiter to be their supreme god and honoured the emperor in the usual fashion. As lengthy as this was preserved the Romans had actually a tolerant perspective.
The Jews were monotheistic and also known no other deity other than their very own god. In the Roman Realm they had actually a privileged position through regard to their faith. The Roguy Empire increased into huge components of the nations approximately the eastern Mediterranean. In the last 3rd of the second century B.C. the Diaspora-Jews that lived tright here came under the direct ascendancy of the Romans. In 63 B.C. Pompeius dominated Syria and also Palestine. Caesar and Augustus were supported by the Jewish rulers, of whom Herod the Great is more than likely still the best-recognized. For this reason the Jews were privileged: they were allowed to practise their religious beliefs and also to observe their religious laws and rites easily. The Jewish neighborhoods were collegia licita according to Romale legislation.21 Apart from an expulsion of Jews from the city of Rome in 139 B.C., which obviously shortly ended up being obsolete, and the exemption under Caligula (37-41 A.D.), the Romale state was tolerant. The intense clashes flaring up repetitively between Greeks and also Jews in Alexandria were a special instance which deserve to be explained by specific frameworks and also breakthroughs of this city. The Jewish uprising, which finished with the devastation of Jerusalem and also the taking of Masada, had its origin in different interior Jewish spiritual endeavours contending through each other, with which social and also economic tensions were likewise linked. The Bar Kochba uprising in the time of the reign of Hadrian (132-135 A.D.) was unleashed by the building of a temple for Jupiter instead of Jahweh and also a debated banning of circumcision.
The tolerant perspective of the Roman state was not influenced by the wars, although the government tried hard to host the Jewry within its ethnic boundaries and also to prohilittle bit missionary work and proselytism. Prejudices versus the Jews are testified to in created comments of the Roman upper class, although prejudices sucount additionally existed in the reduced classes, but of these we have actually no written testimonies. Since of their spiritual legislations the Jews were perceived as separate from society and different, to the extent that they were regarded as anti-social beings.22
At what time Christianity became an independent religious neighborhood cannot be exactly identified. The name Christiani arises around the middle of the first century. The Christians did not contact themselves so; this advanced at a later stage.23 In Rome Christianity maybe already offered increase to conflict under emperor Claudius (41-54 A.D.). The Romale chronicler Suetonius reports in his biography of Claudius that the emperor expelled the Jews bereason, incited by a particular Chrestus, they constantly led to trouble (Suetonius, Claudius, 25, 4).24 Here it becomes clear that the government did not as yet distinguish between Jews and also Christians. On the other hand also, the expulsion had occurred not as a result of religious motives, but to preserve public order.
Under the power of Nero (54-68 A.D.) the known persecution of Christians took location, about which the historian Tacitus reports. In order to oppose the rumour that the emperor himself had collection fire to Rome (64 A.D.), Nero actors suspicion on the Christians. The population of Rome seemingly harboured an aversion to and also also hatred of Christians. According to Tacitus, Christians were convicted of "hatred for the humale race" (odium humani generis), condemned and executed. At the same time they were reproached for disgraceful spiritual techniques, which comes to the fact that Christians did not practise their religious beliefs in public, so that the populace had to depend on suppositions (Tacitus, Annales 15, 44).25
It is controversial as to whether persecution of Christians took area under Domitian (81 - 96). Christians more than likely felt endangered because the emperor took actions versus high-ranking persons particularly.26 From the reply of emperor Trajan to an inquiry by his unique legate in the province Bithynia-Pontus, Pliny the younger, it have the right to be deduced that the federal government had no interemainder in tracking dvery own and convicting Christians. It occurred just if somebody was accprovided by name. Anonymous reports must not be considered. Who claimed not to be a Christian had actually to sacrifice to the Roman gods and also went unpuniburned (Pliny the younger, Letters X 96-97).27
In the second century persecutions became more frequent, because of accusations from the community. At the time as soon as Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180) came to power, epidemics, famines, barbarian intrusions and flooding in Rome arisen progressively. Christians were firmly opposed, because they did not sacrifice to the Romale gods and in turn did not participate in reconciling via the gods. The Church Father Tertullian defines this as follows: "If the Tiber reaches the walls, if the Nile does not climb in the fields, if the sky does not move or the earth does, if tright here is a famine, if tbelow is a torment, the cry is at once: "Away with the Christians to the lion!"" (Tertullianus, Apologeticum 40).28
Throughout the 3rd century the Empire competent one of its heaviest situations. The exterior, however additionally the inner situation worsened noticeably. It was believed that the gods had actually turned ameans from the Empire. Hence, emperor Decius at first (249) ordered a basic sacrifice to the gods. All inhabitants of the Empire were requested to donate incense and some wine and also to eat from the sacrificial pet. Due to the fact that many kind of Christians refused to do so, from the state"s suggest of watch they verified a absence of loyalty, resulting in the persecution of Christians throughout the Roman Empire. Due to the fact that the case of the Empire deteriorated, emperor Valerian (253 - 260) took legal activity against the clerics in order to disturb the frameworks of the Christian neighborhoods.
All Christians who belonged to the social elite were likewise persecuted so as to persuade them to relinquish their confidence.29
A few more or much less quiet decades followed, after which the Christians were again persecuted under Diocletian and his colleagues. Diocletian"s edicts against the Christians (303) applied to all 4 components of the Empire, even if the edicts were executed via different intensity. The system of the tetrarchy intended a spiritual authorization of the ascendancy. Diocletian as Jovius was not Jupiter, yet he received from him all authority, which he transmitted to Maximian Herculius. At the same time he was better than Maximian, bereason Hercules had to lug out the orders of Jupiter. The exact same was likewise valid for both the Caesars who were designated successors of the Augusti. If the Christians refsupplied to sacrifice to the Roguy gods on whom the political system of the tetrarchy was founded, they were not just guilty of a political offence, but were also committing a sacrilege.30
With the tolerance edict of the emperor Galerius (311) the persecutions of the Christians formally came to an finish in the whole Realm. Galerius did not transform to Christianity, but near the finish of his life he had to accept that although the Christians were persecuted they might not be convinced to sacrifice to the typical gods and also so assistance the continued existence of the Romale Empire. With his edict he enabled the Christians to worship their god, offered that they prayed for the welfare of the majesties and of the state and for their own health and also did not violate the public order.31
Other themes which might be treated within the scope of a "longitudinal section" about "state and religion" include: Constantine and the absolute tolerance of the Christian faith; the fight for flexibility of the church versus the state; bishop Ambrosius"s opplace to the emperor Theodosius; the distinction in between the breakthrough of the relationship in between state and church in Rome and Byzantium; the investiture problem in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; Protestantism and also its relation to the state; the so-referred to as Kulturkampf (problem beween the Prussian state and the Romale Catholic church) in the nineteenth century; the Christian churches during nationwide socialism; progressive secularisation and the separation between state and church in our time;32 the distinct situation of Islam.
Consequences for future history teacher training
The wide selection of examples mirrors how crucial the scientific basis is for future background teachers. Because of this, subject-particular lectures or seminars on reasons of contemporary troubles and also around a conmessage of meaning in between past and also present need to be presented to those students. In seminars, managing didactics of background have to be broached and also questioned, not just theoretically about modern relevance and also its meaning for history lessons, however also citing concrete examples, to make modern relevance in its various manifestations conceivable. Indeed, specific planning and agreements in between historians and history education experts are important in order to current coordinated or common seminars. Bachelor and also master research studies have considering that been introduced in some countries; various other countries have actually adhered to the state examination, yet have been modularizing all courses of examine for future teachers. Such agreements can be made not in general but just in accordance via the various regulations either of the country or of each university.
If historians and also background education experts succeed in cooperating, future teacher students will learn exactly how they can use subject-certain knowledge for the didactically well-started planning and also carrying out of background lessons at college. On the one hand also, it is essential for future teachers to acquire a detailed understanding of the topic. On the various other hand, it is absolutely vital to identify to what basic insight the topic have the right to be diminished. The reduction is one of the many essential didactic categories.33 Future background teachers should learn to withstand the temptation of considering everything they have actually learned around the subject to be equally crucial and therefore of interemainder to their learners. They need to fairly ask themselves the question regarding what elements of the subject could be relevant for the young learners. In this way the topic deserve to be summarized under a question or a difficulty question. At the same time, the topic and also an interemainder in learning deserve to be unified. In the didactic evaluation, it may be asked what the present design template implies for our current and also for the interests of the learners. By planning lessons, future history teachers must think about the age and the pre-knowledge their learners already lug through them.34 For history classes at second institution level (around ten to 16 years old) it is certainly adequate to deal e.g. with the causes of a problem that is considerable for the existing. It is additionally possible for younger kids to attend to actual physical remains from the Celts or the Romans, through historic monuments, old buildings, memorial statues, or through a museum in the area, all of which are manifestations of historic society.
A longitudinal area, as discussed over, produces a conmessage of interpretation via the epochs. For younger learners it is tough to contextualize, because they perform not have actually sufficient previous expertise, particularly throughout the first years of background lessons. Consequently tbelow is the risk that through it a short-logical development devoutness, a mono-causal connection and also a absence of intricacy in the means points are perceived, are advocated. In any instance, the teacher"s assistance is crucial.35 History education and learning experts have discussed this problem quite regularly. On the other hand also, the longitudinal area worsens contemporary relevance and therefore contributes to political education and learning. The inspiration of the students is additionally strengthened.
Of course, future history teachers have to take into consideration which products, either written sources or pictures, caricatures, maps, diagrams and so on. are obtainable to and also useful for their learners. In the end this additionally enables future background teachers to prepare themselves to differentiate in their classroom.
For future history teachers, thorough subject-certain expertise is absolutely crucial in order to identify possibilities to teach the different develops of contemporary relevance. At the very same time, they should possess comprehensive didactical knowledge to take the interests and age of their learners into consideration. For these reasons, planning that works with historic and also didactical seminars and lectures is taken into consideration preferable in universities.
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1 W Stadtmüller, "Sachquelle", W Schreiber, Erste Begegnungen mit Geschichte. Grundlagen historischen Lernens, 2nd ed., Vol. I (Neuried, Ars Una, 2004), pp. 441-454. 2 P Karsten, "Unterricht in Geschichte-Politik", Geschichte, Politik und ihre Didaktik, 20, 1992, p. 14. 3 K-E Jeismann (ed.), "Funktion und Didaktik der Geschichte", J Rohlfes & K-E Jeismann (eds.), Geschichtsunterricht, Inhalte und Ziele. Arbeitsergebnisse zweier Kommissionen (Stuttgart, Klett, 1974), pp. 106139; I Geiss, "Der Ort der Geschichtswissenschaft in der Gesellschaft oder Die Funktion des Historikers", E Jäkel & E Weymar (eds.), Die Funktion der Geschichte in unserer Zeit (Stuttgart, Klett, 1975), pp. 192-207; E Weymar, "Funktionen historischen Unterrichts in der Schule", E Jäkel & E Weymar (eds.), Die Funktion der Geschichte..., pp. 265-279. 4 I Geiss, "Der Ort der Geschichtswissenschaft in der Gesellschaft...", E Jäkel & E Weymar (eds.), Die Funktion der Geschichte... , pp. 196 et sqq.; K-E Jeismann (ed.), "Funktion und Didaktik der Geschichte", J Rohlfes & K-E Jeismann (eds.), Geschichtsunterrichtpp. 115-116. 5 K-E Jeismann (ed.), "Funktion und Didaktik der Geschichte", J Rohlfes & K-E Jeismann (eds.), Geschichtsunterricht..., pp. 118-119. 6 HD Schmid, "Verfahrensweisen im Geschichtsunterricht", J Rohlfes & K-E Jeismann (eds.), Geschichtsunterricht..., pp. 54-56; K-E Jeismann (ed.), "Funktion und Didaktik der Geschichte", J Rohlfes & K-E Jeismann (eds.) Geschichtsunterricht., p. 126. 7 J Rohlfes,"Gegenwartsbezug als Kategorie der Geschichtswissenschaft und des Geschichtsunterrichts", R Schörken (ed.), Der Gegenwartsbezug der Geschichte (Stuttgart, Klett, 1981), p. 60; "...wenn der Konnex zwischen der Vergangenheit und der Gegenwart konkret und empirisch ausweisbar ist". 8 J Rohlfes,"Gegenwartsbezug als Kategorie...", R Schörken (ed.), Der Gegenwartsbezug der Geschichte..., pp. 62-63. 9 Compare E Erdmann (ed.), Thematische Längsschnitte für den Geschichtsunterricht in der gymnasialen Oberstufe (Neuried, Ars Una, 2002). This volume refers greatly to secondary school learners (around 16 to 19 years old). The initially two write-ups deal primarily through longitudinal sections; E Erdmann, "Thematische Längschnitte im Geschichtsunterricht, E Erdmann (ed.), Thematische Längsschnitte für den Geschichtsunterricht..., pp. 11-24; A Michler, "Längsschnitte im Geschichtsunterricht", E Erdmann (ed.), Thematische Längsschnitte für den Geschichtsunterricht..., pp. 25-42. 10 For the adhering to I describe the book of E Krautkrämer, Krieg ohne Ende? Israel und die Palästinenser - Geschichte eines Konflikts (Darmstadt, Primus, 2003). In the appendix tbelow is a Germale translation of the draft of the British Zionists and the letter of Minister Bal4 to Lord Rothsboy, 2 November 1917, pp. 160-161. 11 A Shlaim, The Iron Wall surface. Israel and also the Arab World (London, Allen Lane, 2000) pp. 3-4. 12 F Schreiber & M Wolfsohn, Nammsanotherstage2019.comanize. Geschichte und Struktur des Konflikts, 4 (Opladen, Leske und. Budwell-off, 1996), pp. 42, 52. 13 W Laqueur (ed.), "The Sykes-Picot agreement", The Israel-Arab Reader. A documentary background of the Middle East conflict, rev. ed. (London, Pelican publications, 1970), pp. 29-33. 14 W Laqueur (ed.), "The MacMahon Letter", The Israel-Arab Reader..., pp. 33-35. 15 E Krautkrämer, Krieg ohne Ende?p. 13. Critically about Lawrence: W Koch, "Entzauberung einer Legende", Die Zeit, 47, 1969 (obtainable at http://www.zeit.de/1969/47/entzauberung-einer-legende, as accessed on 24 January 2017), pp. 1-3. 16 W Laqueur (ed.), "The Balfour Declaration", The Israel-Arab Reader..., pp. 35-36. 17 CH Weizmann, Trial and Error. The Autobiography, 4 (London, Hamilton, 1950), pp. 252-262; E Krautkrämer, Krieg ohne Ende? pp. 22-23. 18 F Schreiber & M Wolfsohn, Nammsanotherstage2019.comanize. Geschichte und Struktur des Konflikts..., pp. 39-40. 19 W Czysz et al. (eds.), "Six dedication inscriptions to Apollo Grannus from Faimingen and surroundings", Die Römer in Bayern (Stuttgart, Theiss, 1995) p. 443; cf. PH Filtzinger, D Planck & B Cämmerer (eds.), Die Römer in Baden-Württemberg, 3 (Stuttgart-Aalen, Theiss), p. 85. 20 Epona was venerated not only in present-day South-West Germany kind of, but also in the Balkans, in Rome and also in contemporary Algeria and also Morocco; f. M Euskirchen, "Epona", H Cancik & M Landfester (eds.), Der Neue Pauly, 4, column 2 (Stuttgart, Metzler, 1998). To various areas and engravings f. W Czysz et al. (eds.), Die Römer in Bayern..., p. 271; f. PH Filtzinger, D Planck & B Cämmerer (eds.), Die Römer in Baden-Württemberg..., pp. 197-198, 238, 370, 374, 395, 435, 465, 588. 21 H Castritius, "Die Haltung Roms gegenüber den Juden in der ausgehenden Republik und in der Prinzipatszeit", TH Klein, V Losemann & G Mai (eds.), Judentum und Antisemitismus von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart (Düsseldorf, Droste, 1984), pp. 17-23. 22 H Castritius, "Die Haltung Roms gegenüber den Juden...", TH Klein, V Losemann & G Mai (eds.), Judentum und Antisemitismus..., pp. 32-33; W Schmitthenner, "Kennt die hellenistisch-römische Antike eine "Judenfrage"?; B Martin & E Schulin (eds.), Die Juden als Minderheit in der Geschichte, 3rd (München, Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag, 1985), pp. 9-29, 21. 23 K Piepenbrink, Antike und Christentum (Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2007), pp. 2-3. 24 Suetonius, De vita Caesarum, 2 (London, Loeb Classical Library, 1914). With an English translation by JC Rolfe. The English translation of the life of Claudius (easily accessible at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/suetonius/12caesars/claudius*.html, as accessed on 25 January 2017). The Latin text describes "Chrestos", the translation of Christus according to the interpretation of the Church Fathers. 25 Tacitus, Annals, interpreted by AJ Church & WJ Brodribb (London, Macmillan, 1876) (available at http://www.sacred-messages.com/cla/tac/a15040.htm, as accessed on 25 Jan.2017), book XV, 44. 26 J Moreau, Die Christenverfolgung im römischen Reich, 2 (Berlin, De Gruyter, 1971), pp. 37-44; K Piepenbrink, Antike und Christentum... , p. 2. 27 Pliny the younger, Letters, through a English translation by W Melmoth, revised by WLM Hutchinchild, 2 (London, Heinemann, 1915), pp. 96-97 (obtainable at https://archive.mmsanotherstage2019.com/details/letterswithengli02plinuoft, pp. 401-407 as accessed on 24 January 2017). 28 Tertullian, Apology, De Spectaculis, via an English translation by TR Glover (London, Heinemann, 1977), p. 40 (available at https://ryanfb.github.io/loebolus-data//L250.pdf, as accessed on 25 January 2017), p. 183. 29 J Moreau, Die Christenverfolgungen im römischen Reich pp. 85-90; K Piepenbrink, Antike und Christentum..., pp. 15-16. 30 K Piepenbrink, Antike und Christentum..., p. 19; K Christ, Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit (München, HC Beck, 1988) pp. 726-727. 31 J Moreau, Die Christenverfolgungen im römischen Reich..., pp. 112-113; K Christ, Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit..., pp. 735-376. With a translation of the edict of Galerius; K Piepenbrink, Antike und Christentum ... , pp. 70-71, likewise with a translation of the edict. 32 It is noticeable to begin this design template through the conversation paper of the FDP (Free Democratic Party), "Freie Lirche im Freien Staat", from 1974 (accessible at http://gbs-hh.de/pdf/Thesen-FDP-Kirchenpapier.pdf, accessed on 24 January 2017). 33 H Buszello, "Zum Problem der "didaktischen Analyse" im Fach Geschichte: Fachspezifische Lernzielkategorien und ihre Anwendung in der Praxis", Die Realschule (84)10, 1976 pp. 600-609; F Conrad & E Ott, "Didaktische Analyse", U Mayer, H-J Pandel & G Schneider (eds.), Handbuch Methoden im Geschichtsunterricht (Schwalbach/ Ts, Wochenschau, 2004) pp. 561-576. 34 N Zwölfer, "Die Vorbereitung einer Geschichtsstunde", H Günther-Arndt (ed.), Geschichts-Didaktik. Praxishandbuch für die Sekundarstufe I und II (Berlin, Cornelsen Scriptor, 2003), pp. 197-205. 35 E Erdmann, "Thematische Längsschnitte im Geschichtsunterricht", E Erdmann (ed.), Thematische Längsschnitte für den Geschichtsunterricht..., p. 18 through note 20; H Strotzka, "Globale Aspekte in nationalen Geschichtslehrplänen. Probleme und Perspektiven", K Pellens et al. (eds.), Historical consciousness and History teaching in a globalizing society (Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang, 2001), pp. 287-290.