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Yesterday and also Today

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Y&T n.17 Vanderbijlpark Jul. 2017



Contemporary relationship - a category of historic science and also of the didactics of background and its after-effects in teacher training

Elisabeth Erdmann

Friedrich-Alexander-UniversitätErlangen-Nürnberg, Germany e-mail: elisabeth.erdmann


Contemporary relevance together a category of the didactics of history teaching has not only historic facts which can be reputed the causes of present-day problems and circumstances but additionally those which, ~ above the grounds of the values or ideas inherent in them, space identical, equivalent, or contradictory to present-day troubles or notions. A context of definition is created between present and also past which offers rise come orientation knowledge, do it feasible to reflect on solutions to contemporary problems, to think of alternatives to habitual contemporary patterns the thinking and living, and also to construct future perspectives. Selected instances of the various elements of modern-day relevance space discussed, such as the conflict in between Israelis and Arabs in the middle East, and also the duty of religious beliefs at miscellaneous times in history. The aftermath arising indigenous this category for both the didactic and subject-specific cultivate of history teachers will be discussed, and also the nature of the relationship in between subject-specific and also didactic training.

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Keywords: contemporary relevance; context of an interpretation between present and also past; History; Didactics of History; history teacher training; history lessons; Israel and the Palestinians, State and also religion.


Anyone who has actually taught background has experienced how interested college student are once they room able to touch an old object favor a Neolithic axe or a fragment of roman inn pottery. They are therefore encouraged to put questions around the object, about the material and the period from which the thing originates. If along with students girlfriend visit Celtic or Roman stays or a medieval castle in the vicinity, a comparable effect is achieved. That is necessary that the college student not only look at the remains, yet have the possibility to check out them, to take your measurements and also to comment on them.1 In this way remains indigenous times lengthy past become part of the students" lives.

These examples present how past and also present space connected. It is no surprising that in 1992 an experienced teacher stated: "Historical contents without contemporary relevance room irrelevant for students and cannot be taught".2

Before examples for contemporary relevance in history and in background lessons are offered and after-effects for history teacher cultivate shown, it is important to recognize what role modern relevance theatre in history as science and also in background didactics.

Contemporary Relevance

Development because the late 1960s

During the late 1960s and also the beginning of the 1970s historians and history education professionals were already discussing modern relevance, because background as scientific research at university too as background teaching at college were controversial.3 How could it it is in justified come teach history at university and at school, since universities and schools to be socially relevant and also had an result on currently society? Several posts were published around why background should it is in taught, not only at universities but also in schools.4 In these articles contemporary relevance played crucial part. Chroniclers and history education professionals made proposals in bespeak to rundown the different tasks of history as science and also of to teach history. Just the disagreements for contemporary relevance will be debated below.

Causes of present-day problems and also circumstances

Primarily, historic insight is crucial for the understanding and also explanation of present-day phenomena and also subsequently their historic causes and developments. As a preeminence this would attract the attention mostly to phenomena that the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, such as the center East problem or the German division. But other subjects room rooted additional in the past, for example the splitting of the roman inn Catholic Church by the Reformation.5

A paper definition of meaning between present and also past

Contemporary relevance consists of not only the causes of present-day difficulties but additionally those which, ~ above the grounds the the values or principles inherent in them, are identical, equivalent, or contradictory to present-day problems or notions. A context of meaning is created between present and past which offers rise to orientation knowledge, do it possible to reflect on solutions to contemporary problems, to think of alternatives to habitual contemporary patterns of thinking and also living, and to develop future perspectives. Moreover, background as science can provide categories of and insights right into object areas which are similar to the present, but at the very same time far-off enough not to evoke emotionally barriers. Also, central categories of politics decision-making processes like the scopes of activity of says of various size have the right to be better understood from specific temporal distances and compared v the present. That is to be detailed that v a compare or an analogy in between present and also past, just the features of the corresponding eras and also the historical difference must be considered. Only then is a context of meaning as described created.6Rohlfes defines contemporary relevance as a classification of historical science and of historic didactics. Follow to him, modern relevance comes right into play just "if you have empirical proof for the connection in between past and present". The is convinced that the existing is illuminated through the past and also the past by the present.7 A still a more important function as regards modern relevance comes up in the didactics of background rather than in historic science. Because didactics of background requires not just structure and also form, genesis and duty of historical consciousness, but in its practical area additionally takes into factor to consider the corresponding addressees, in background lessons the learner look and discuss i beg your pardon aims, contents and also methods are to it is in found. Thus contemporary relevance is identified in the didactics that history, not just as a situation connection and also a context of an interpretation between past and present, yet it likewise needs come be determined what definition the link has for the present and also life truth of the respective addressees. For institution children contemporary relevance is a kind of visibility relationship, since they want to know what definition history has actually for them, which is why castle should resolve it. In addition, in the context of an interpretation in past and present, it is necessary for the addressees come not only perceive the action motives in the sources and also interpretation categories, but also to understand and explain them. Finally, indigenous it adheres to the orientation towards the previous which affects the present and also future.8 To produce a paper definition of definition of the miscellaneous epochs, a so-called "longitudinal section" is often said as a subject-specific to teach procedure.9

Cause connection and a context definition between past and present have the right to be made clean in different and multiple phenomena that history. The course, modern relevance can additionally include testimonia of the historical society like remains, monuments, anniversaries etc. These are purposely not shown as an example, because they often differ on regional level. Their inclusion in the great should as such occur follow to the sphere of recommendation of the addressees. An instance of reason connection and one of context meaning between past and present will be outlined next, prior to conclusions are presented for history teacher training.

Examples for modern-day relevance

Causes of today"s disputes in the past: Israel and the Palestinians

An end to the conflict between Israel and also the Palestinians is currently not in sight, return there have been attempts come orchestrate reconciliation. However, equipped hostilities and wars flare increase constantly. Solution possibilities have actually covered a vast field. Just how did that come around that in the area that the previous Ottoman empire Arabs and also Jews clash so bitterly?10

The Middle east belonged come the ottoman Empire. However, in 1882 Egypt to be taken by brothers troops and during the last quarter of the nineteenth century Arab nationalism arised in the towns of Egypt and Syria. In Egypt this nationalism was directed against the English, and also in the Arabian countries against Turkish rule. In 1914 a complete of 700,000 Arabs and 80,000 Jews, among them around 12,000 Zionists, lived in Palestine. The hatchet "Zionism" arised only at the end of the nineteenth century. Theodor Herzl (1860 - 1904) is pertained to as that is founder; his ideas were taken up by the currently existing "Zionist" movement. Herzl was plainly aware the the Arabs life in Palestine, however he could only imagine a peaceful and prosperous immigrant for the totality Palestine.11 Also, the Zionists go not desire to ache or provoke the Arabs.12 because that centuries the Arabs and also the Jews resident in Palestine had actually been living with each other peacefully. However, this changed in the decade before the an initial World War as soon as the number of Jewish immigrants thrived perceptibly. Till that time the principle "conquest by work", i.e. Substituting Arabian workers through Jewish ones, had been unknown in Palestine.

During the an initial World war British government officials make promises and concluded agreements with the Arabs, with the Zionists and with French federal government officials. These promises or agreements were partly rather vague, so that they could be understood differently. Moreover, lock contradicted each other. Right here we have actually the birth of the Middle eastern conflict. Exactly how did that come about?

During the first World war the Middle eastern as 3rd front acquired in importance. The west side of the Arabian peninsula to be strategically far-reaching for good Britain in order to guard the Suez-Aden line. Emir Hussein, the leader of Al Hijaz and also the most influential Arab prince, wanted to cost-free himself from ottoman domination and expand his preeminence over the whole Arabia. He offered the British empire an alliance in bespeak to acquire his self-reliance with the aid of the Britons. Because he had to show factor to consider for the Arab nationalists, the problem for an Arab uprising to take it place, to be the recognition of one Arab great Empire which would certainly enclose today"s state areas of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, the Arab peninsula (without Aden), the sheikdoms in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia and also Palestine, then component of Syria. In this regard his kid Faisal negotiated v Sir Henry MacMahon, the brother High Commissioner in Cairo. MacMahon, however, had to consult the foreign Office, that could and did not desire to go over the head that the French, that were also very interested in this area. The French federal government suggested mystery negotiations in between France and also Britain around the subdivision that the area to defend English and also French attention areas. From the British side diplomat mark Sykes and also from the French side Francois Gemmsanotherstage2019.comes-Picot, secretary the the French embassy in London, to be asked to negotiate. ~ above 16 might 1916 they got to the complying with conclusion: France would obtain Syria and also Lebanon, and also England would obtain Mesopotamia and Palestine and Jordan as interest areas.13

Under the impression of the German-Turkish advancement to the Suez Canal, MacMahon to be urged to hurry, because Britain wanted the Arabs" energetic support. He sent an suitable letter come Hussein ~ above 14 October 1915 in which that expressed his hope for "a firm and lasting alliance" between an excellent Britain and also the Arabs. Indeed, "the two districts of Mersina and also Alexandretta and portions of Syria lying to the west the the districts of Damascus, Homs, Hama and also Aleppo cannot be said to be purely Arab, and should be excluded from the limits demanded".14 In his answer on 1 January 1916 Hussein mentioned that he would deviate native his demands only out of factor to consider for France. He might assume the the Arab an excellent Empire to be guaranteed, and that over there would just be an argument around the Syrian coastal areas. In the summer the 1916 the uprising versus Ottoman rule commenced. Colonel thomas Edward Lawrence instructed Faisal"s Bedouins in the art of guerrilla warfare and also they were listed with brothers money and French weapons. His allude of view, which he expressed in his book "The seven Pillars that Wisdom", needs to be read critically.15

The 3rd agreement connected Chaim Weizmann (1874 - 1952). The had developed a procedure to create larger quantities of acetone, i m sorry was very important for the armaments industry. Throughout the very first World war the brother Admiralty noted him v a study laboratory and also in this means he come into contact with leading political leaders whose assistance he could win for Zionist plans, amongst others Winston Churchill, the an initial Lord the the Admiralty. Prime Minister Lloyd Gemmsanotherstage2019.come and also his international Minister, Arthur lord Balfour, were persuaded in 1917 that the Jewish concern had to be supported; considerations that the brothers Middle east strategy probably additionally played vital role. If a Jewish ar in Palestine was under a brothers protectorate, the Suez Canal can be safeguarded native the East and also the overland route from Egypt come India might be opened. The british Zionists, being in contact with American like-minded people who had in the meantime winner over president Wilson and other influential politicians to your aim, demanded and obtained a explanation which had been submitted to, and approved by, the brother Cabinet. This decision, that a national home may be developed in Palestine for the Jewish people, was made recognized in the type of a letter through the international Minister, lord Balfour ~ above 2 November 1917.16

The Balfour Declaration was neither compatible through the MacMahon-Faisal-letters (1915/16) nor v the Sykes-Picot covenant (1916). Until today the State that Israel bases its claim for existence and legal right on this declaration. That is therefore necessary come look in ~ it an ext closely. Lord Rothschild, friendly with Weizmann, the Upper house member and also Vice-President the the british mmsanotherstage2019.comanisation of Jewish Communities, had in July 1917 presented lord Balfour with the breeze of a declaration in i beg your pardon the British federal government would recognise Palestine as the national residence of the Jewish people. The draft as such demanded Palestine together a whole. However, Balfour in his reply only referred to the facility "of a national house in Palestine". Moreover, he insisted top top respecting the civil liberties of present non-Jewish areas in Palestine. The Zionists had demanded the reestablishment that a national house in Palestine, yet the declaration mentioned only "establishment". Re-establishment would have meant the recognition of historical rights in the entirety of Palestine. The growth of the current state the Israel go not, in Israeli view, contradict the Balfour Declaration, since the historical Palestine prolonged over components of Syria and Transjordan and also for the brothers in 1917 it to be also part of Transjordan.17

In 1919 negotiations in between Weizmann as spokesman because that the Palestinian Jews and Emir Faisal in Damascus, who actually regulated an Arab great Empire, resulted in an agreement. V this Faisal authorized the competence that Weizmann to speak for the Palestinian Jews. Noted that alters should happen with regard to the foreseeable self-reliance of the Arabs, Faisal had actually made the reservation the he can not be held accountable because that the non-realization the the agreement. This in reality transpired. In July 1920 France expelled Faisal indigenous Syria, after i m sorry the British installed him together king in Iraq and he ended up being anti-Zionist. Something similar happened come his brothers Abdullah who was mounted in Jordan as administrator, after that as Emir. France got the mandate end Syria and Lebanon, and great Britain the mandate end Mesopotamia and also over Palestine.

In the context of this article, the further development until the current cannot it is in followed, however it may have become clear the the various promises the England and France throughout the an initial World War room irreconcilable. The local populace in the Middle eastern were not consulted, fairly they to be used. Also, the states developed there through the good Powers to be without legitimacy, which has actually an effect until today.18

Context of an interpretation between past and present: State and religion

Topically the relationship in between the state and religion is significantly discussed. For this reason it is reasonable to outline a longitudinal section around this layout from Roman antiquity until the existing in order come look in ~ the relationship in between polytheistic religion and the state, as well as the relationship in between monotheistic religions and the state v the centuries, e.g. Judaism, Christianity and also Islam.

Polytheism was the norm in antiquity. Hence the Romans worshipped a multitude that gods and also goddesses. For them the was essential that on particular holidays sacrifices had to be made in a traditional means and they additionally observed signs in nature, such together the trip of birds and lightning. Since they venerated so numerous deities they allowed other human being to adore their very own deities. Frequently they tried come harmonize their gods with international gods. The Romans thus equated Zeus, the supreme god that the Greeks, through Jupiter, their can be fried god. If there was no correspondence through the roman inn gods, international gods were borrowed to maintain the name, as with the Greek god Apollo. They tried come equate Oriental, Celtic and also Teutonic gods or divine beings which were venerated in a certain an ar only through their very own gods, e.g. The surname of the Celtic god Grannus, that was attributed v the gift the curing civilization was added to Apollo, that besides other qualities, had actually the very same attribute. Engravings exist include the surname Apollo Grannus.19 If it was not feasible to equate foreign and Roman deities, the Romans likewise worshipped international gods favor Epona, the Celtic goddess responsible for horses.20 The key thing was that all residents of the roman inn Empire considered Jupiter to it is in their supreme god and honoured the emperor in the normal fashion. As lengthy as this was kept the Romans had a tolerant attitude.

The Jews to be monotheistic and also recognized no other divine being except their own god. In the Roman empire they had a privileged place with to the to their religion. The Roman realm expanded into big parts of the countries roughly the eastern Mediterranean. In the last 3rd of the second century B.C. The Diaspora-Jews who lived there came under the direct rule that the Romans. In 63 B.C. Pompeius dominated Syria and also Palestine. Caesar and also Augustus were sustained by the Jewish rulers, of who Herod the good is more than likely still the best-known. Thus the Jews were privileged: they were allowed to practise your religion and to observe their spiritual laws and also rites freely. The Jewish communities were collegia licita follow to roman law.21 apart from an expulsion of Jews native the city of Rome in 139 B.C., i beg your pardon obviously soon ended up being obsolete, and the exemption under Caligula (37-41 A.D.), the roman state was tolerant. The extreme clashes flaring up repeatedly in between Greeks and also Jews in Alexandria were a special case which can be explained by certain structures and breakthroughs of this city. The Jewish uprising, which ended with the destruction of Jerusalem and also the taking of Masada, had its origin in various internal Jewish religious endeavours competing with every other, v which social and economic stress were also connected. The Bar Kochba uprising throughout the regime of Hadrian (132-135 A.D.) to be unleashed by the building and construction of a temple for Jupiter instead of Jahweh and a questioned banning of circumcision.

The tolerant perspective of the roman state was not impacted by the wars, although the federal government tried difficult to organize the Jewry in ~ its ethnic borders and also to prohibit missionary work and also proselytism. Prejudices versus the Jews are testified to in written comments of the Roman upper class, although prejudices surely likewise existed in the reduced classes, yet of these we have actually no composed testimonies. Since of their spiritual laws the Jews were viewed as separate from culture and different, to the degree that they were pertained to as anti-social beings.22

At what time Christianity became an independent spiritual community can not be specifically determined. The surname Christiani arises around the middle of the an initial century. The believer did not speak to themselves so; this advanced at a later on stage.23 In Rome Christianity possibly currently gave rise to problem under emperor Claudius (41-54 A.D.). The Roman historian Suetonius reports in his story of Claudius that the emperor expelled the Jews because, incited through a specific Chrestus, lock constantly caused trouble (Suetonius, Claudius, 25, 4).24 below it i do not care clear the the government did not as yet distinguish between Jews and Christians. ~ above the other hand, the expulsion had developed not early to religious motives, yet to keep public order.

Under the reign of Nero (54-68 A.D.) the well-known persecution of Christians take it place, about which the historian Tacitus reports. In bespeak to protest the rumour the the emperor himself had set fire to Rome (64 A.D.), Nero actors suspicion top top the Christians. The populace of Rome look at harboured one aversion to and even hatred of Christians. According to Tacitus, Christians to be convicted the "hatred because that the person race" (odium humani generis), condemned and also executed. At the exact same time they to be reproached because that disgraceful religious practices, which comes to the truth that believer did no practise their religious beliefs in public, so that the population had to count on suppositions (Tacitus, Annales 15, 44).25

It is controversial regarding whether persecution of christians took place under Domitian (81 - 96). Christians probably felt threatened since the emperor take it actions versus high-ranking persons specifically.26 native the reply of emperor Trajan to an inspection by his special legate in the province Bithynia-Pontus, Pliny the younger, it can be deduced the the government had no attention in tracking down and convicting Christians. It taken place only if someone was accused through name. Cotton reports have to not be considered. Who asserted not to it is in a Christian had to sacrifice come the roman inn gods and also went unpunished (Pliny the younger, letter X 96-97).27

In the 2nd century persecutions became an ext frequent, due to accusations indigenous the community. In ~ the time once Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180) pertained to power, epidemics, famines, barbaric invasions and flooding in Rome emerged increasingly. Christians were firmly opposed, since they did no sacrifice come the roman gods and consequently did not get involved in reconciling through the gods. The Church father Tertullian describes this together follows: "If the Tiber will the walls, if the Nile go not rise in the fields, if the skies doesn"t move or the earth does, if there is a famine, if over there is a plague, the cry is in ~ once: "Away with the believer to the lion!"" (Tertullianus, Apologeticum 40).28

During the 3rd century the empire experienced among its most heavy crises. The external, but likewise the internal case worsened noticeably. The was believed that the gods had turned away from the Empire. Hence, emperor Decius at an initial (249) notified a basic sacrifice to the gods. All residents of the empire were asked for to donate incense and also some wine and also to eat native the sacrificial animal. Because many Christians refuse to carry out so, native the state"s point of watch they verified a absence of loyalty, causing the persecution the Christians throughout the roman inn Empire. Since the situation of the empire deteriorated, emperor Valerian (253 - 260) took legal activity against the clerics in order come disturb the structures of the Christian communities.

All Christians who belonged to the social elite were additionally persecuted so as to persuade them to relinquish their faith.29

A couple of more or much less quiet years followed, after i beg your pardon the Christians were again persecuted under Diocletian and also his colleagues. Diocletian"s edicts versus the christians (303) used to all 4 parts that the Empire, even if the edicts were executed with various intensity. The mechanism of the tetrarchy expected a spiritual authorization of the rule. Diocletian together Jovius was not Jupiter, but he obtained from him all authority, which the transmitted to Maximian Herculius. In ~ the very same time he was higher than Maximian, since Hercules had to bring out the assignment of Jupiter. The very same was also valid because that both the Caesars that were designated successors of the Augusti. If the Christians refused to sacrifice to the roman inn gods on who the political mechanism of the tetrarchy to be founded, they were not just guilty of a politics offence, yet were additionally committing a sacrilege.30

With the tolerance edict that the emperor Galerius (311) the persecutions that the believer formally pertained to an finish in the totality Empire. Galerius did not convert to Christianity, however near the finish of his life he had actually to expropriate that return the Christians to be persecuted they could not be persuaded to sacrifice to the timeless gods and so assistance the ongoing existence that the roman Empire. V his edict he allowed the christians to prayer their god, detailed that lock prayed because that the welfare that the emperors and also of the state and for their very own well-being and did not violate the general public order.31

Other themes which could be treated within the scope of a "longitudinal section" around "state and also religion" include: Constantine and also the pure tolerance of the Christian faith; the fight for freedom of the church matches the state; bishop Ambrosius"s opposition come the emperor Theodosius; the difference between the advancement of the relationship between state and also church in Rome and also Byzantium; the investiture dispute in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; Protestantism and its relation to the state; the so-called Kulturkampf (conflict beween the Prussian state and also the roman Catholic church) in the nineteenth century; the Christian churches in the time of national socialism; gradual secularisation and also the separation between state and church in our time;32 the special instance of Islam.

Consequences because that future history teacher training

The wide range of instances shows how vital the clinical basis is for future background teachers. Therefore, subject-specific lectures or seminars on causes of present-day difficulties and around a context of meaning between past and present should be gift to those students. In seminars, handling didactics of history should it is in broached and discussed, not only theoretically regarding contemporary relevance and also its significance for background lessons, but additionally citing concrete examples, come make contemporary relevance in its various manifestations conceivable. Indeed, precise planning and also agreements between historians and history education professionals are essential in order to current coordinated or typical seminars. Bachelor and master research studies have since been presented in part countries; other countries have adhered come the state examination, but have to be modularizing all process of study for future teachers. Together agreements deserve to be made no in general but only in accordance v the different regulations either of the nation or of each university.

If historians and history education professionals succeed in cooperating, future teacher students will learn just how they have the right to use subject-specific understanding for the didactically well-founded planning and carrying out of history lessons at school. ~ above the one hand, the is necessary for future teacher to get a comprehensive knowledge of the subject. On the other hand, that is absolutely crucial to identify to what basic insight the subject deserve to be reduced. The reduction is among the most vital didactic categories.33 Future background teachers must discover to withstand the temptation of considering every little thing they have actually learned about the topic to be equally important and therefore of interest to your learners. They have to rather ask themselves the question as to what facets of the subject might be relevant for the young learners. In this method the subject deserve to be summary under a concern or a problem question. At the very same time, the subject and also an interest in learning can be combined. In the didactic analysis, it might be inquiry what the present theme way for our present and for the understand of the learners. By planning lessons, future background teachers require to take into consideration the age and the pre-knowledge your learners currently bring v them.34 For background classes at second school level (about ten come 16 year old) that is absolutely adequate to deal e.g. With the reasons of a dispute that is far-ranging for the present. The is also possible for younger kids to deal with actual physical remains from the Celts or the Romans, with historical monuments, old buildings, memorial statues, or through a museum in the region, all of which space manifestations of historic culture.

A longitudinal section, as stated above, to produce a paper definition of definition through the epochs. For younger learners it is daunting to contextualize, since they execute not have sufficient previous knowledge, especially during the very first years of background lessons. In turn there is the danger that v it a short-logical progression devoutness, a mono-causal connection and also a absence of complexity in the method things are perceived, space promoted. In any case, the teacher"s assistance is necessary.35 history education specialists have pointed out this trouble quite often. On the various other hand, the longitudinal ar intensifies modern-day relevance and therefore contributes to politics education. The an inspiration of the college student is additionally strengthened.

Of course, future history teachers have actually to take into consideration which materials, one of two people written sources or pictures, caricatures, maps, diagrams etc. Are available to and advantageous for their learners. In the finish this also permits future background teachers to prepare themselves to identify in your classroom.


For future background teachers, thorough subject-specific expertise is absolutely necessary in bespeak to acknowledge possibilities to teach the various forms of contemporary relevance. In ~ the same time, they need to possess detailed didactical understanding to take the interests and also age of your learners into consideration. For these reasons, to plan that works with historical and didactical seminars and lectures is thought about desirable in universities.

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1 W Stadtmüller, "Sachquelle", W Schreiber, Erste Begegnungen mit Geschichte. Grundlagen historischen Lernens, second ed., Vol. Ns (Neuried, Ars Una, 2004), pp. 441-454. 2 ns Karsten, "Unterricht in Geschichte-Politik", Geschichte, Politik und ihre Didaktik, 20, 1992, p. 14. 3 K-E Jeismann (ed.), "Funktion und Didaktik der Geschichte", J Rohlfes & K-E Jeismann (eds.), Geschichtsunterricht, Inhalte und Ziele. Arbeitsergebnisse zweier Kommissionen (Stuttgart, Klett, 1974), pp. 106139; i Geiss, "Der Ort der Geschichtswissenschaft in der Gesellschaft oder die Funktion des Historikers", E Jäkel & E Weymar (eds.), dice Funktion der Geschichte in unserer Zeit (Stuttgart, Klett, 1975), pp. 192-207; E Weymar, "Funktionen historischen Unterrichts in der Schule", E Jäkel & E Weymar (eds.), die Funktion der Geschichte..., pp. 265-279. 4 ns Geiss, "Der Ort der Geschichtswissenschaft in der Gesellschaft...", E Jäkel & E Weymar (eds.), die Funktion der Geschichte... , pp. 196 et sqq.; K-E Jeismann (ed.), "Funktion und Didaktik der Geschichte", J Rohlfes & K-E Jeismann (eds.), Geschichtsunterrichtpp. 115-116. 5 K-E Jeismann (ed.), "Funktion und Didaktik der Geschichte", J Rohlfes & K-E Jeismann (eds.), Geschichtsunterricht..., pp. 118-119. 6 HD Schmid, "Verfahrensweisen im Geschichtsunterricht", J Rohlfes & K-E Jeismann (eds.), Geschichtsunterricht..., pp. 54-56; K-E Jeismann (ed.), "Funktion und Didaktik der Geschichte", J Rohlfes & K-E Jeismann (eds.) Geschichtsunterricht., p. 126. 7 J Rohlfes,"Gegenwartsbezug als Kategorie der Geschichtswissenschaft und des Geschichtsunterrichts", R Schörken (ed.), Der Gegenwartsbezug der Geschichte (Stuttgart, Klett, 1981), p. 60; "...wenn der Konnex zwischen der Vergangenheit und der Gegenwart konkret und empirisch ausweisbar ist". 8 J Rohlfes,"Gegenwartsbezug als Kategorie...", R Schörken (ed.), Der Gegenwartsbezug der Geschichte..., pp. 62-63. 9 compare E Erdmann (ed.), Thematische Längsschnitte für den Geschichtsunterricht in der gymnasialen Oberstufe (Neuried, Ars Una, 2002). This volume refers mainly to secondary school learners (about 16 come 19 years old). The an initial two articles deal typically with longitudinal sections; E Erdmann, "Thematische Längschnitte ns Geschichtsunterricht, E Erdmann (ed.), Thematische Längsschnitte für den Geschichtsunterricht..., pp. 11-24; A Michler, "Längsschnitte im Geschichtsunterricht", E Erdmann (ed.), Thematische Längsschnitte für den Geschichtsunterricht..., pp. 25-42. 10 because that the following I refer to the book of E Krautkrämer, Krieg ohne Ende? Israel und dice Palästinenser - Geschichte eines Konflikts (Darmstadt, Primus, 2003). In the appendix there is a German translation of the breeze of the british Zionists and also the letter of Minister Balfour to mr Rothschild, 2 November 1917, pp. 160-161. 11 A Shlaim, The iron Wall. Israel and also the Arab human being (London, Allen Lane, 2000) pp. 3-4. 12 F Schreiber & M Wolfsohn, Nahost. Geschichte und Struktur des Konflikts, 4 (Opladen, Leske und. Budrich, 1996), pp. 42, 52. 13 W Laqueur (ed.), "The Sykes-Picot agreement", The Israel-Arab Reader. A documentary history of the Middle eastern conflict, rev. Ed. (London, Pelican books, 1970), pp. 29-33. 14 W Laqueur (ed.), "The MacMahon Letter", The Israel-Arab Reader..., pp. 33-35. 15 E Krautkrämer, Krieg ohne Ende?p. 13. Critically around Lawrence: W Koch, "Entzauberung einer Legende", dice Zeit, 47, 1969 (available in ~ http://www.zeit.de/1969/47/entzauberung-einer-legende, together accessed on 24 January 2017), pp. 1-3. 16 W Laqueur (ed.), "The Balfour Declaration", The Israel-Arab Reader..., pp. 35-36. 17 CH Weizmann, Trial and Error. The Autobiography, 4 (London, Hamilton, 1950), pp. 252-262; E Krautkrämer, Krieg ohne Ende? pp. 22-23. 18 F Schreiber & M Wolfsohn, Nahost. Geschichte und Struktur des Konflikts..., pp. 39-40. 19 W Czysz et al. (eds.), "Six dedication inscriptions to Apollo Grannus native Faimingen and surroundings", dice Römer in Bayern (Stuttgart, Theiss, 1995) p. 443; cf. PH Filtzinger, D Planck & B Cämmerer (eds.), dice Römer in Baden-Württemberg, 3 (Stuttgart-Aalen, Theiss), p. 85. 20 Epona was venerated not just in contemporary South-West Germany, but additionally in the Balkans, in Rome and in contemporary Algeria and also Morocco; f. M Euskirchen, "Epona", H Cancik & M Landfester (eds.), Der Neue Pauly, 4, column 2 (Stuttgart, Metzler, 1998). To different places and also inscriptions f. W Czysz et al. (eds.), dice Römer in Bayern..., p. 271; f. PH Filtzinger, D Planck & B Cämmerer (eds.), dice Römer in Baden-Württemberg..., pp. 197-198, 238, 370, 374, 395, 435, 465, 588. 21 H Castritius, "Die Haltung Roms gegenüber den Juden in der ausgehenden Republik und in der Prinzipatszeit", TH Klein, V Losemann & G roof (eds.), Judentum und Antisemitismus von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart (Düsseldorf, Droste, 1984), pp. 17-23. 22 H Castritius, "Die Haltung Roms gegenüber den Juden...", TH Klein, V Losemann & G mai (eds.), Judentum und Antisemitismus..., pp. 32-33; W Schmitthenner, "Kennt die hellenistisch-römische Antike eine "Judenfrage"?; B boy name & E Schulin (eds.), die Juden als Minderheit in der Geschichte, 3rd (München, Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag, 1985), pp. 9-29, 21. 23 K Piepenbrink, Antike und Christentum (Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2007), pp. 2-3. 24 Suetonius, De vita Caesarum, 2 (London, Loeb classical Library, 1914). V an English translate into by JC Rolfe. The English translate into of the life the Claudius (available at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/suetonius/12caesars/claudius*.html, as accessed on 25 January 2017). The Latin text refers to "Chrestos", the translate in of Christus according to the translate of the Church Fathers. 25 Tacitus, Annals, analyzed by AJ Church & WJ Brodribb (London, Macmillan, 1876) (available at http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/tac/a15040.htm, as accessed top top 25 Jan.2017), book XV, 44. 26 J Moreau, die Christenverfolgung im römischen Reich, 2 (Berlin, De Gruyter, 1971), pp. 37-44; K Piepenbrink, Antike und Christentum... , p. 2. 27 Pliny the younger, Letters, with a English translation by W Melmoth, revised by WLM Hutchinson, 2 (London, Heinemann, 1915), pp. 96-97 (available in ~ https://archive.mmsanotherstage2019.com/details/letterswithengli02plinuoft, pp. 401-407 as accessed on 24 January 2017). 28 Tertullian, Apology, De Spectaculis, with an English translate in by TR Glover (London, Heinemann, 1977), p. 40 (available at https://ryanfb.github.io/loebolus-data//L250.pdf, as accessed top top 25 January 2017), p. 183. 29 J Moreau, dice Christenverfolgungen ns römischen Reich pp. 85-90; K Piepenbrink, Antike und Christentum..., pp. 15-16. 30 K Piepenbrink, Antike und Christentum..., p. 19; K Christ, Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit (München, HC Beck, 1988) pp. 726-727. 31 J Moreau, die Christenverfolgungen im römischen Reich..., pp. 112-113; K Christ, Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit..., pp. 735-376. Through a translate in of the edict of Galerius; K Piepenbrink, Antike und Christentum ... , pp. 70-71, also with a translate in of the edict. 32 it is obvious to start this template with the discussion paper of the FDP (Free democratic Party), "Freie Lirche ns Freien Staat", indigenous 1974 (available in ~ http://gbs-hh.de/pdf/Thesen-FDP-Kirchenpapier.pdf, accessed top top 24 January 2017). 33 H Buszello, "Zum problem der "didaktischen Analyse" im Fach Geschichte: Fachspezifische Lernzielkategorien und ihre Anwendung in der Praxis", die Realschule (84)10, 1976 pp. 600-609; F Conrad & E Ott, "Didaktische Analyse", U Mayer, H-J Pandel & G Schneider (eds.), Handbuch Methoden ns Geschichtsunterricht (Schwalbach/ Ts, Wochenschau, 2004) pp. 561-576. 34 N Zwölfer, "Die Vorbereitung einer Geschichtsstunde", H Günther-Arndt (ed.), Geschichts-Didaktik. Praxishandbuch für die Sekundarstufe i und II (Berlin, Cornelsen Scriptor, 2003), pp. 197-205. 35 E Erdmann, "Thematische Längsschnitte im Geschichtsunterricht", E Erdmann (ed.), Thematische Längsschnitte für den Geschichtsunterricht..., p. 18 with keep in mind 20; H Strotzka, "Globale Aspekte in nationalen Geschichtslehrplänen. Probleme und Perspektiven", K Pellens et al. (eds.), historical consciousness and history teaching in a globalizing society (Frankfurt to be Main, Peter Lang, 2001), pp. 287-290.