Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Salt is one alkali metal, gift in team 1 of the routine table, because it has a single electron in its external shell the it conveniently donates, producing a positively charged atom—the Na+ cation.

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Metallic sodium is used mainly for the manufacturing of sodium borohydride, sodium azide, indigo, and also triphenylphosphine. Employed only in rather devoted applications, only around 100,000 tonnes the metallic salt are created annually. Salt is now created commercially v the electrolysis the molten sodium chloride.


Protons and Neutrons in Sodium

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Sodium is a chemical facet with atom number 11 which method there are 11 protons in the nucleus. Total variety of protons in the nucleus is dubbed the atomic number of the atom and also is offered the symbol Z. The complete electrical charge of the nucleus is as such +Ze, wherein e (elementary charge) equates to to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The complete number of neutrons in the cell nucleus of an atom is referred to as the neutron number of the atom and is offered the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atom mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the ghost number and also the atomic number is well-known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is generally a selection of steady isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have actually the exact same atomic number and also are as such the exact same element, however differ in the variety of neutrons. Mass numbers of usual isotopes that Sodium are 23. 

Main isotope of Sodium

Its just stable isotope is 23Na. 2 radioactive, cosmogenic isotopes are the byproduct that cosmic beam spallation: 22Na has actually a half-life the 2.6 years and also 24Na, a half-life of 15 hours; all various other isotopes have actually a half-life of less than one minute.

Sodium-23 is composed of 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and 11 electrons. Acute ghost radiation exposure (e.g., from a nuclear criticality accident) converts several of the steady 23Na in person blood plasma to 24Na. By measure the concentration that this isotope, the ghost radiation dosage to the victim deserve to be computed.

Sodium-22 is composed of 11 protons, 11 neutrons, and also 11 electrons. Odium-22 is a radioactive isotope that sodium, undergoing positron emissions to 22Ne with a half-life that 2.605 years. It is additionally commonly supplied as a positron source in positron annihilation spectroscopy.

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Sodium-24 is written of 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and 11 electrons. Sodium-24 is among the most necessary isotopes. The is radioactive and created from typical sodium-23 by neutron bombardment. Therefore its activity accounts for most of the reactor coolants task when reactor is at complete power.