a chemistry element, atom number 20, atomic load 40.08. (See attachment 6.) Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. In combination with phosphorus it develops calcium phosphate, the dense, tough material of the bones and teeth. It is vital cation in intracellular and extracellular fluid and is necessary to the normal clotting that blood, the maintain of a common heartbeat, and the initiation the neuromuscular and also metabolic activities.Within the body fluids calcium exists in 3 forms. Protein-bound calcium account for about 47 per cent the the calcium in plasma; many of the in this type is bound come albumin. One more 47 every cent that plasma calcium is ionized. Around 6 every cent is complexed with phosphate, citrate, and also other anions.Ionized calcium is physiologically active. One of its most essential physiological attributes is regulate of the permeability of cell membranes. Parathyroid hormone, which causes transfer that exchangeable calcium from bone right into the blood stream, maintains calcium homeostasis by avoiding either calcium deficit or excess.Hypercalcemia: This is once the level the serum calcium rises over normal; neuromuscular task begins come diminish. Symptoms incorporate lethargy, muscle weak (which, together the level of calcium increases, have the right to progress to depressed reflexes and hypotonic muscles), constipation, psychological confusion, and also coma. The heartbeat likewise slows, i m sorry potentiates the impacts of digitalis.Hypocalcemia: This is a serum level of calcium the is listed below normal; the is shown up by boosted neuromuscular irritability. Once there is a deficit of ionized calcium, the nerve cell become much more permeable, allowing leakage the sodium and also potassium from the cells. This produce excitation the the nerve fibers and also triggers uncontrollable activity of the skeletal muscles. Hence, together the calcium level proceeds to drop, the patient starts to suffer muscle twitching and cramping, grimacing, and also carpopedal spasm, which can easily progress come tetany, laryngospasm, convulsions, cardiac arrhythmias, and also eventually come respiratory and cardiac arrest. Fairly early signs of hypocalcemia space a hopeful trousseau"s sign and a optimistic chvostek"s sign.Dietary sources of calcium encompass dairy products (such together milk and cheese), soybeans, strengthened orange juice, dark environment-friendly leafy vegetables (such as mustard greens and also broccoli), sardines, clams, and oysters. The recommended dietary allowance of calcium for youngsters aged 4 to 8 is 800 mg, and also that for females aged 50 come 70 is 1200 mg. (See tables in the Appendices because that recommended diet allowances throughout the life span.) the is difficult to satisfy these needs without consisting of milk or milk assets in the daily diet. The most familiar calcium deficiency disease is rickets, in which the bones and teeth soften. However, that is thought that a big number of people suffer indigenous subclinical calcium deficiency since of bad eating habits. Since calcium is essential to the formation and maintenance of solid bones, an adequate intake is essential in the prevention of osteoporosis.

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calcium acetate the calcium salt of acetic acid; administered orally as a resource of calcium and as a phosphate binder, such as in patients through end-stage renal disease. Additionally used as a pharmaceutical buffering agent.
calcium carbonate one insoluble salt arising naturally in bone, shells, and chalk; offered as an antacid, calcium supplement, and phosphate binder, and also for therapy of osteoporosis.
calcium channel blocker (calcium channel impede agent) a drug such as nifedipine, diltiazem, or verapamil the selectively block the influx of calcium ions v a calcium channel the cardiac muscle and smooth muscle cells; provided in the treatment of Prinzmetal"s angina, chronic stable angina, and cardiac arrhythmias. Calcium channel impede agents plot to manage arrhythmias by slowly the price of sinoatrial node discharge and the conduction velocity through the atrioventricular node. They action in vasospastic angina to relax and prevent coronary artery spasm. The device of activity in classic angina is a lowering that myocardial oxygen use by dilating peripheral arteries and thereby reducing complete peripheral resistance and also the work-related of the heart.
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 Physiologic activity of calcium channel blockers. (Data indigenous Hardman J. And Limbird L., editors: Goodman and Gilman"s The Pharmacologic communication of Therapeutics, nine ed., brand-new York, McGraw-Hill, 1996; and the nationwide Institutes the Health: The sixth Report the the Joint national Committee top top Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Pub. No. 98-4080, Washington, DC, GPO, 1998.) from Edmunds and also Mayhew, 2000.
calcium chloride a salt offered in systems to restore electrolyte balance, act hypocalcemia, and act together a treatment adjunct in cardiac arrest and in magnesium poisoning.
calcium citrate a salt supplied as a calcium replenisher; additionally used in the therapy of hyperphosphatemia in renal osteodystrophy.
calcium glubionate a calcium replenisher, offered as a nutritional supplement and also for the therapy of hypocalcemia; administered orally.
calcium gluceptate a calcium salt administered intramuscularly or intravenously in the prevention and treatment that hypocalcemia and as one electrolyte replenisher.
calcium gluconate a calcium salt administered intravenously or orally in the treatment and also prevention that hypercalcemia and as a nutritional supplement. It is additionally administered through injection together a treatment adjunct in cardiac arrest and in the therapy of hyperkalemia.
calcium lactate a calcium replenisher, administered orally in the treatment and also prevention that hypocalcemia and also as a nutritional supplement.
calcium oxalate a salt that oxalic acid, which in excess in the urine might lead to development of oxalate urinary calculi.
calcium pantothenate a calcium salt that the dextrorotatory isomer the the B vitamin pantothenic acid; supplied as a nutritional supplement. The is also easily accessible as racemic calcium pantothenate, i m sorry is a mixture that the dextrorotatory and levorotatory isomeric forms.
calcium phosphate a salt include calcium and the phosphate radical; dibasic and also tribasic calcium phosphate are used as sources of calcium.
calcium propionate a salt provided as an antifungal preservative in foods and as a topical antifungal agent.
calcium pyrophosphate the pyrophosphate salt the calcium, provided as a sprucing up agent in dentifrices. Crystals the the dihydrate form occur in the joints in calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease.
calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease one acute or chronic inflammatory arthropathy led to by deposition the crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in the joints and synovial fluid and also chondrocalcinosis. Clinically, it may resemble plenty of other connective tissue diseases such as arthritis and gout, or it may be asymptomatic. Acute attacks are sometimes referred to as pseudogout.
A metallic bivalent element; atom no. 20, atom wt. 40.078, thickness 1.55, melting suggest 842°C. The oxide of calcium is one alkaline earth, CaO, quicklime, which on the addition of water becomes calcium hydrate, Ca(OH)2, slaked lime. For part organic calcium salts not provided below, see the surname of the organic mountain portion. Countless calcium salts have vital uses in metabolism and in medicine. Calcium salts space responsible for the radiopacity that bone, calcified cartilage, and also arteriosclerotic plaques in arteries.

calcium

A bivalent metallic element (atomic number 20; atomic weight 40.08) that is an essential for bone and tooth formation and intimately linked to many metabolic processes, including muscle contraction, neural transmission, coagulation and inhibition of cell destruction. Calcium levels in the blood are regulated by the balanced activity of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. That is present in dairy product products, almonds, irpari greens, sardines and also salmon; ideal absorption the calcium hinges on ideal acidity of the stomach, visibility of vitamin D and a balance of other minerals, including phosphorus and also mangesium.

calcium

A metal, atomic number 20, atomic weight 40.08, i beg your pardon is a divalent cation numerous in the body, specifically in bone and teeth Calcium metabolism Ca2+ is the most crucial mineral in bone–added by osteoblasts; gotten rid of by osteoclasts, Ca2+ maintains metabolic processes–eg, muscle contraction, neural transmission, cardiac activity, coagulation and inhibition of cell destruction; serum Ca2+ levels are regulated by a balance between PTH and also calcitonin–produced by the thyroid"s C or parafollicular cells; proper absorption the Ca2+ hinges on ideal gastric acidity, existence of vitamin D, and a balance of various other minerals–eg, phosphorus and mangesium; PTH ↑ serum Ca2+ levels by ↑ bone resorption via osteoclasts and also mobilizing Ca2+, and also indirectly ↑ GI absorb of Ca2+ by ↑ vitamin D production; PTH also ↑ phosphate excretion in the urine; calcitonin ↓ serum Ca2+ and phosphate levels by inhibiting bone resorption day-to-day requirement ± 400–1000 mg/day Ref selection Infant come 1 month: 7.0-11.5 mg/dL; 1 month come 1 yr: 8.6-11.2 mg/dL >1 yr: 8.2-10.2 mg/dL; chronic abuse the laxatives, overfill transfusions and also various drugs have the right to ↓ Ca2+ levels; Ca2+ is ↑ in hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid tumors, Paget"s disease, myeloma, metastatic CA, many Fx, an extensive immobilization, renal disease, adrenal insufficiency, ↑ Ca2+ ingestion, antacid abuse; Ca2+ is ↓ in Cushing syndrome, hypoparathyroidism, malabsorption, acute pancreatitis, renal failure, peritonitis. See Hypercalcemia, Hypocalcemia, Ionized calcium.
A metallic bivalent element; atom no. 20, atom wt. 40.078, thickness 1.55, melting allude 842°C. Countless calcium salt have critical uses in metabolism and also in medicine. Calcium salts are responsible because that the radiopacity that bone, calcified cartilage, and arteriosclerotic plaques in arteries.

calcium

(kal"se-um) < calci- + -ium> Ca
A silver-white metallic chemical element, atomic number 20, atomic weight (mass) 40.08. Lime (calcium oxide), CaO, is its oxide. Calcium is a major component of limestone. Hydroxylapatite, a calcium phosphate, provides up about 75% of human body ash and around 85% that mineral issue in bones.

Function

Calcium is essential for blood clotting, enzyme activation, and also acid-base balance. It provides firmness and also rigidity come bones and teeth. That is essential for lactation, the function of nerves and muscles (including love muscle), and maintenance that membrane permeability. Many absorption of calcium wake up in the duodenum and also is dependent on the existence of calcitriol. Dietary factors affecting calcium absorption incorporate phytic acid, consumption of too lot phosphorus, and also polyphenols discovered in tea. Roughly 40% that the calcium consumed is absorbed. Blood level of calcium space regulated through parathyroid hormone; deficiency the this hormone produces hypocalcemia. The serum level the calcium is normally about 8.5 to 10.5 mg/dl. Low blood calcium reasons tetany. Blood deprived that its calcium will not clot. Calcium is deposited in the bones however can be mobilized from them to store the blood level constant when diet intake is inadequate. At any type of given time, the human body of an adult contains around 700 g the calcium phosphate; of this, 120 g is the facet calcium. Adults need to consume at least 1 g the calcium daily. Pregnant, lactating, and postmenopausal women need to consume 1.2–1.5 g of calcium per day.

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Sources

Excellent sources of calcium include milk and milk commodities (but no cottage cheese), and also calcium-fortified orange juice. Good sources include canned salmon and also sardines, broccoli, tofu, rhubarb, almonds, figs, and also turnip greens.

CAUTION!

1. Activities error and variation may sometimes reason inaccurate or inconsistent worths in analyzing calcium levels.

CAUTION!

2. Extreme calcium supplementation has been associated with a tiny increased threat of vascular calcification and heart attack.
CaCl2·2H2O, a salt offered to raise the calcium contents of the blood in disorders such as hypocalcemic tetany or overdose of calcium channel blocker or beta blocker. The is supplied in solution and also administered intravenously. That is incompatible with epinephrine.
A substance provided to tie metallic ions, such together lead or zinc. That is used to treat poisoning brought about by those metals.
C12H22CaO14, a granular, white, odorless, and also flavorless powder supplied to treat hypocalcemia, or overdose by calcium channel blocker or through beta blocker.
C3H7CaO6P, the calcium salt that glycerophosphoric acid. The is provided as a dietary supplement, in medicine formulation, and to prevent dental caries.
Ca(OH)2, a white powder offered as an astringent used to the skin and also mucous membranes and also in dentistry together cavity liner or a pulp-capping product under a layer of zinc phosphate. That induces tertiary dentin formation for bridging or root closure, yet it may be pertained to a chronic pulpitis and also pulp necrosis after pulp capping.