The trial begins. Heck Tate is the first witness. Under cross-examination, he admits the a physician was never called to the scene to study Mayella Ewell. Bob Ewell take away the stand next and also causes a line in the courtroom v his bad attitude and foul language. Mr. Ewell is not shaken native his story, however Atticus very closely plants the seed the Mr. Ewell self could"ve win Mayella. Mayella bring away the was standing next. Even though Atticus believes the she"s lying, the treats her through courtesy and respect; Mayella thinks the he"s making fun of her. She testimony soon proves that Mayella is unused to gentility and common courtesy. Atticus asks Tom to wake up so the Mayella may recognize him; together he does, reconnaissance notices that Tom"s left arm is withered and also useless — he could not have actually committed the crime in the method it was described. The state rests that is case.

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Atticus calls only one witness — Tom Robinson. Tom speak the true story, being careful all the while not to come best out and also say that Mayella is lying. However, Tom makes a deadly error as soon as he admits under cross-examination that he, a black color man, feeling sorry because that Mayella Ewell. Dill has actually a really emotional an answer to Mr. Gilmer"s questioning and leaves the courtroom in tears. Scout adheres to Dill outside, wherein they talk with Dolphus Raymond, who reveals the secret behind his brown bag and also his drinking. Scout and Dill go back to the courtroom gradually to hear the last half of Atticus" impassioned speech to the jury. Simply as Atticus finishes, Calpurnia walks into the courtroom and also heads toward Atticus.


Analysis

At this suggest in the story, readers might be tempted come think that Tom Robinson"s trial is basically around white prejudice against African Americans. Prejudice certainly does pertained to play in the court proceedings, however Lee explores lot deeper person emotions and also societal ideals than the straightforward mistreatment the a person based on skin color.

The Ewells room what human being today would speak to "white trash." reconnaissance sums the Ewells up as soon as she says "people favor the Ewells lived as guests of the ar in prosperity and in the depth of depression. No truant officers can keep their plenty of offspring in school; no public wellness officer could cost-free them from congenital defects, various worms, and the conditions indigenous to filthy surroundings." The Ewells forage because that food, furnishings, and water in ~ the town dump, i beg your pardon is very close to your shack. Just beyond their house is a "Negro settlement." Atticus had once taken Scout and also Jem the end to the dump to discard your Christmas tree, and also Scout noticed the the black color people"s houses were modest yet neat and appeared to be clean with fragrant smells increasing from your kitchens — rather a comparison to the Ewells" surroundings. The truth is that most in the african American ar live cleaner, much more honest, and more productive resides than the Ewells. Consequently, the resentment against blacks ~ above the component of the "white trash" runs deep.

Against this backdrop of a trial where a "white-trash" female is accusing a black man of a violent crime, Lee expertly explores numerous of the novel"s major themes while concentrating on the questions of prejudice and also class or society station.

In Maycomb throughout the time of Tom Robinson"s trial, afri Americans reside in ~ the bottom of the totem pole as far as strength in the community. Also Scout, who most likely can"t yet define the term "prejudice," tells Dill, ""Well, Dill, ~ all, he"s just a Negro."" Scout"s community has for this reason reinforced the low station of blacks that she innocently accepts and helps keep that station. In Scout"s world, some things simply are, and also the truth that blacks room "just Negroes" is just one of them. In fact, Scout reflects her lack of intentional prejudice by admitting "If the had actually been whole, he would have been a fine specimen of a man."

It is same to assume, however, the the adult Scout that is actually telling the story has come to understand the error of thinking that any kind of human being is lesser than an additional based solely on skin color. If Scout believed that blacks to be truly lesser, then she character would have no reason for informing this story — the story she"d tell, if she said one in ~ all, would certainly be markedly different.

The blacks in the community accept your lot. They may not favor the therapy they receive, yet to defy the rules collection by the community way literally risking their lives. Tom Robinson walk nothing but aid Mayella Ewell. In fact, that "was most likely the only human being who was ever decent come her." The just thing that Tom is guilty of is feeling sorry because that Mayella. But, because that an afri American man to publicly admit feeling pity because that any white human is overstepping societal bounds.

In truth, Tom embarrasses Mayella through refusing her advancements and Mayella embarrasses her father by making developments toward a black man. Bob Ewell"s pride can"t afford for a black male to go ago to his ar talking around a white mrs making a happen at him. Worse yet, Tom is now mindful of incest in the Ewell household, something the is taboo in every class. Tom to be unlikely to tell anyone of what had actually happened v Mayella, recognizing the his safety was in ~ stake. Bob Ewell could"ve let the totality thing drop, but he"d rather be responsible because that an chaste man"s death than risk having actually his family further diminished in the town"s eyes.

Truthfully, Tom"s testimony actually embarrasses the Ewells more. Tom tells the court the Mayella asked him come kiss she saying, ""what her papa do to she don"t count,"" which informs the totality town that Bob Ewell sexually abuses his daughter. He additional tells the court the Bob referred to as his very own child a "goddamn whore." Tom is careful to never straight accuse Mayella that lying, repeatedly qualifying, ""she"s mistake in she mind.""

Tom is a compassionate man, and ironically, his plot of kindness space responsible, at least indirectly, because that his current situation. In Maycomb society (and, truthfully, the southern United claims at this time), basic human kindness indigenous a black human being to a white human being is impermissible. The results are deadly once the "lesser" display their compassion — and also then have actually the audacity to admit it — for the "greater."

The all-white jury is in an awkward position. If castle acquit a black male who admittedly pities a white person, then they"re voting come lessen their own power end the black community. However, if they convict Tom, they perform so understanding that they"re sentencing one innocent male to death. Mayella renders their selection very easy when she looks at the jury and says, ""That nigger yonder took benefit of me an" if you fine an elaborate gentlemen don"t wanta do nothin" around it climate you"re all yellow stinkin" cowards.""

The remaining question about Tom"s innocence is why did he operation from the Ewell residential property if the did nothing wrong? Atticus explains that Tom to be truly in between a rock and a difficult place: "he would not have actually dared win a white mrs under any kind of circumstances and also expect to live long, therefore he took the first opportunity to run — a sure authorize of guilt." The rules are so clearly defined in donate of white human being that Tom was literally doomed the moment Bob and Mayella Ewell decided to suspicion him.

Dill, a son who has actually not yet reached Scout"s level of acceptance around societal prejudices, reacts strongly come the lack of respect african Americans are shown. Together Dill and Scout leave the courtroom for a couple of minutes, Dolphus Raymond defines his very own disdain for ""the hell white civilization give fancy folks, without even stopping come think the they"re people, too."" In fact, Raymond is for this reason disturbed by this dichotomy the he prefers come live among black people; however, in order to save himself and his household from the exact same treatment the Tom is receiving, the pretends to it is in a drunkard. The white ar excuses his behavior since they think he is one alcoholic that "can"t aid himself." The thought has yet to take place to anyone that a white male may enjoy the company of afri American people. V that conversation, reconnaissance is further educated about prejudice and the negative consequences that an outcome from it.

When Bob Ewell bring away the angry stand, enlightenment notes that the just thing "that make him much better than his nearest neighbors was, the if scrubbed with lye soap in an extremely hot water, his skin was white." it is ironic the the Ewells room so dirt-covered that identifying your skin color is difficult. Ewell testifies with the confidence of someone that knows he"s currently won. If his instance weren"t therefore clear reduced in his eyes, that wouldn"t do lewd jokes as soon as being questioned on the angry stand.

The an ext sophisticated white human being in Maycomb in ~ least shot to pretend the their prejudices don"t run so deep, however Ewell is past this kind of genteel pretense. He boldly tells judge Taylor the he"s ""asked this county because that fifteen year to clean out that swarm down yonder, they"re dangerous to live approximately "sides devaluin" my property — "" If a man"s life were not at stake, Ewell"s testimony would certainly be laughable. Nobody — not even a neighborhood of "lower-class" blacks — have the right to devalue a item of residential or commercial property that is basically an extension of the city dump. And, the entire courtroom will shortly realize that the peril actually lies in life close to the Ewells, no vice versa.

Atticus gently reflects the unjust of Tom"s case throughout the court proceedings. For instance, Atticus renders a suggest of noting that even though Mayella to be badly beaten and claimed to have been brutally raped, no doctor was ever referred to as to the scene. When he asks Sheriff Tate why he didn"t speak to a doctor, the price is a basic ""It wasn"t necessary, Mr. Finch. . . . Something sho" happened, it was obvious."" that course, a doctor could have confirmed that Mayella had actually not to be raped, and if a white man had actually been accused, a doctor nearly surely would"ve to be called. Yet Tom Robinson is a black man, for this reason calling a doctor just "wasn"t necessary," one more indicator that the deep-running prejudice the blacks in Maycomb live through every day.

Scout (as well together Judge Taylor) is genuinely surprised once Mayella insurance claims that Atticus is mocking her. That is only treating she respectfully. The Lee chooses words "mock" here is important. Mockingbirds repeat sound they hear. They"re like small echo machines. Atticus is only repeating the story as it really happened, yet in this case, one echo is a really dangerous point to Mayella. Lee explains Mayella together being prefer "a steady-eyed cat v a twitchy tail," which is ironic offered that Tom is lot like a mockingbird just trying to make her life much easier and more enjoyable. Cats hunt birds, and also Lee"s summary is of a cat stalking prey. ~ Mayella"s testimony, Scout all of sudden understands the Mayella is "even lonelier 보다 Boo Radley."

During his closing argument, Atticus ties the questions of race and also social terminal together. Make no judgement about Mayella, Atticus speak the jury that ""she has actually merely broken a rigid and also time-honored code of our society, a code so serious that whoever division it is hounded native our middle as unfit to live with. . . . What go she do? She tempted a Negro."" Atticus admits that like Tom Robinson, he pities Mayella Ewell, yet Atticus is white and educated and so is permitted to feel the pity.

Had Tom Robinson to be a woman accused that seducing a white man, the outcome of the trial would be no different. How then, is Dolphus Raymond enabled to live and procreate with black women? He"s white, he owns land, and also he originates from a "fine old family." merely stated, the rule are different for a white male v this pedigree. Ironically, Scout think of Mayella as encountering the same difficulties that a blended child transaction with: "white civilization wouldn"t have actually anything to do with her since she lived among pigs; Negroes wouldn"t have actually anything to execute with her since she to be white." class can be as huge a separator in ~ a community as race.

Glossary

bantam penis a little but wild person; a bantam is a small domestic fowl.

crepey wrinkled prefer crepe fabric or paper.

acrimonious bitter and also caustic in temper, manner, or speech.

ruttin" referring come rut, the routine sexual excitement, or heat, of specific mammals: used esp. Come males.

tenet principle, doctrine, or belief held as a truth, together by part group.

ambidextrous able to use both hands v equal ease.

lavation the action of washing.

chiffarobe a wardrobe with drawers or shelves top top one side.

frog-sticking a an approach of hunting frogs top top bayou financial institutions with a tiny pitchfork.

constructionist a person who interprets, or to trust in interpreting, a law, document, etc. In a mentioned way.

ground-itch an itchy allergic reaction resulted in when parasitic hookworms go into the body v bare feet.

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ex cathedra with the government that originates from one"s rank or office: regularly specif. With reference to papal pronouncements, on problem of confidence or morals, regarded as having authoritative finality.