the amount to be administered in ~ one time, as a stated amount of medicine or a offered quantity that radiation.

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absorbed dose the amount of energy from ionization radiations soaked up per unit mass of matter, to express in rads.
booster dose an quantity of immunogen (vaccine, toxoid, or other antigen preparation), usually smaller than the original amount, injected at an ideal interval after main immunization to sustain the immune response to that immunogen.
curative dose (CD) a dose the is sufficient to regain normal health. See likewise median curative dose.
effective dose (ED) that amount of a medicine that will produce the impacts for which that is administered. See additionally median reliable dose.
erythema dose the amount the radiation that, when used to the skin, causes erythema (temporary reddening).
fractionated dose a portion of the total dose prescribed, together of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to be given at intervals, usually throughout a 24-hour period.
infective dose (ID) the amount that a pathogenic agent the will cause infection in prone subjects. See additionally median infective dose and also tissue culture infective dose.
lethal dose (LD) that quantity of an certified dealer that will or might be adequate to cause death. See also median lethal dose and minimum lethal dose.
loading dose a sheep of medication, often larger than succeeding doses, administered because that the purpose of developing a therapeutic level the the medication.
maintenance dose the amount of a medicine administered to maintain a wanted level the the medicine in the blood.
maximum permissible dose the biggest amount of ionizing radiation the one might safely get within a specified period according to recommended boundaries in existing radiation defense guides. The details amounts vary v age and circumstance.
median efficient dose (ED50) a dose the produces the desired effect in 50 every cent the a population.
median infective dose (ID50) that amount the pathogenic microorganisms the will develop demonstrable epidemic in 50 per cent that the test subjects.
median lethal dose (LD50) the amount of an agent that will kill 50 per cent that the test subjects; in radiology, the lot of radiation that will kill, within a specified period, 50 every cent of people in a large group or population.
median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) that amount the a pathogenic agent that will produce infection in 50 per cent of cell cultures inoculated.
2. the smallest quantity of diphtheria toxin that will certainly kill a guinea pig of 250-gm weight in 4 to 5 days when injected subcutaneously.
reference dose an calculation of the day-to-day exposure to a substance for humans that is assumed to be there is no appreciable risk; that is calculated making use of the no observed adverse effect level and is much more conservative 보다 the larger margin the safety.
1. the air sheep of radiation at the skin surface, making up the major radiation plus backscatter.
threshold dose the minimum dose of ionization radiation, a chemical, or a medicine that will create a detectable degree of any given effect.
threshold erythema dose (TED) the solitary skin sheep that will produce, in 80 per cent the those tested, a faint however definite erythema in ~ 30 days, and also in the various other 20 every cent, no visible reaction.
tissue society infective dose (TCID) that amount the a pathogenic agent the will develop infection as soon as inoculated on tissue cultures; used with a numeric qualifier.
tolerance dose the largest quantity the an certified dealer that might be administered there is no harm. Called also maximum tolerated dose.

LD

Abbreviation for:L-dopalactase deficiencylactate dehydrogenaseLafora diseaselamina densaLaron dwarfismlateral dorsallearning disabilityLeishmania donovanilethal doseleukocyte depletionLiberal Democrat irradiate darklimit of detectionlinkage disequilibriumlipodystrophyliver diseaseliving donorloading doselocal democracy local developmentlow doseluminal diameterLyme diseaselymphocyte depletionlymphoproliferative disorderlymphocyte depletion
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A multisystem disorder led to by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and the most typical tick-borne disease in the U.S. The an illness is endemic in new England, but cases have been reported in every 50 states and also in 20 other countries, including Germany, Switzerland, France, and also Australia. It wake up most frequently in the spring and summer, when its deer mite vectors (genus Ixodes) are most active. Prompt removed of visible ticks native the skin prior to they end up being attached or gain access to the bloodstream (in the an initial 24 come 48 hr) decreases the hazard of transmission.

Etiology

The infected mite injects the spirochete-laden saliva right into the bloodstream, where they incubate for 3 come 32 days and also then migrate to the skin, causing the characteristics erythema migrans (EM) rash.

Diagnosis

The disease is best diagnosed through the existence of EM, which begins as a red macule or papule at the site of the mite bite and expands in a red ring, leave a clear facility like a target or bull’s eye. The lesion usually feels hot and itchy and may thrive to end 20 in (50.8 cm) as much more lesions erupt. The lesion is later on replaced by red blotches or diffusive urticaria. Conjunctivitis, malaise, fatigue, and flulike symptoms and also lymphadenopathy might occur. Antibody tests because that Borrelia burgdorferi through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) check are additionally used for diagnosis in patients with a background of exposure and signs and also symptoms of Lyme an illness but v no evidence of rash. The antibodies space developed against flagellar and outer surface ar proteins on the spirochete. See: illustration

Symptoms

The course of Lyme condition is split into three stages. 1 localized infection: starts with the tick bite and proceeds together above.2 disseminated infection: starts weeks to months later. The spirochetes spread to the remainder of the body with the blood, in some cases causing arthritis (esp. The the knee joints), muscle pain, cardiac dysrhythmias, pericarditis, lymphadenopathy, or meningoencephalitis. Nonprotective antibodies develop during this stage.3 chronic infection: begins weeks to years after the early bite. Patients develop mild to major arthritis, encephalitis, or both, which rarely are fatal.

Treatment

Oral doxycycline or ampicillin (14–21 or –28 work course) successfully eradicates at an early stage uncomplicated Lyme disease. Erythromycin or cefuroxime axetil may be administered to patient allergic to penicillin. Patients v cardiac and neurological involvement may need to be treated through intravenous cephalosporins.

Prognosis

When the condition is cure early, results are good. If cure late, convalescence is prolonged, but complete recovery is the usual outcome in most patients.

Prevention

The Centers for condition Control proposal that human being should comment on with their health treatment providers the possibility of obtaining a Lyme disease vaccination if castle are between 15 and also 70 years old; live, work, or holidays in endemic areas; or frequently go right into wooded or grassy areas. The vaccine is no recommended because that children, pregnant women, and those who carry out not live in or visit endemic areas.

When plan to spend time in places where ticks might be located, human being should wear garments impregnated with insect repellents, hats, lengthy sleeves, pants tucked right into socks, hefty shoes, and also a tick repellent containing DEET (N, N-diethyltoluamide). Tick repellent should not be directly used to an infant or toddler’s skin due to the fact that of the peril of neurotoxicity. If possible, people should stay on paths and also away indigenous high grass or brush. They should check clothing closely for ticks when leaving those areas although mite nymphs, i beg your pardon are smaller sized than 1 mm in length, may not be easily seen. When home, civilization should remove and wash clothing and also check their whole body, esp. The hairline and also ankles, for ticks or nymphs. If a mite or nymph is found, it must be carefully removed with tweezers, esp. The head and mouth parts, yet the human body of the mite or nymph should not be squeezed. The site may then be cleansed with an antiseptic, yet should be it was observed for indications of epidemic (redness, swelling, pain, rash), and the major health treatment provider contacted if epidemic is suspected. Some world make the failure of make the efforts to eliminate ticks or nymphs through alcohol, a lighted match, or petroleum jelly. These steps are ineffective and may boost the risk of infection of tick-borne diseases. Prophylactic antibiotics generally should not be asked for (or given). Although pets dogs may receive Lyme vaccine, they have to still be checked to avoid them native bringing ticks right into the house.

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Patient care

The patient is confirm for any type of drug allergies. Prescribed pharmacologic therapy is defined to the patient, consisting of dosing schedule, the prestige of perfect the course of therapy even if the feels better, and also adverse effects. Patients being treated because that Lyme disease often call for antibiotics for a an extensive period, esp. In advanced stages, which boosts their threat for emerging adverse impacts (e.g., diarrhea). Methods for taking care of these troubles are explained. Patients with chronic Lyme condition often require aid to address changes in lifestyle, family interactions, and capacity to perform everyday activities. Accessible local and also national support teams can aid with together problems. Patients should be made aware that one event of Lyme disease does not prevent recurrences. The U.S. Department of Health and also Human Services has made Lyme condition prevention a priority under its regime “Healthy human being 2010.” Patients can be described the Lyme an illness Foundation (860-870-0070; http://www.lyme.org) or the American Lyme condition Foundation (http://www.aldf.com) for information and also support.