Local winds occur on a little spatial scale, your horizontal dimensions typically several tens to a few hundreds of kilometres. They additionally tend to it is in short-lived lasting frequently several hours to a day. Over there are numerous such winds about the world, some of them cold, some warm, part wet, some dry. Over there are numerous hazards linked with the winds.

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The main species of regional winds space sea breezes and land breezes, Anabatic and also katabatic winds, and also Foehn winds.

You have the right to discover different ways to measure wind speed on ours Experiments and also Demonstrations page, or on our Top 10 principles for Weather Fieldwork page.

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Anabatic winds

This wind is resulted in by heat (heat) processes. Anabatic (upslope) winds take place over slopes which room heated by the sun. Wait which is in contact with slopes that are warmed expands upward and cool and sinks over adjoining valleys (see diagram). Anabatic winds room usually slow, at just 1-2m/s and are rarely crucial expect near shores where they have the right to increase the strength of sea breezes.

Katabatic Winds

Katabatic (downslope) winds occur over slopes which space cooled. Katabatic winds take place where wait in contact with sloping ground is chillier than air in ~ the same level far from the hillside over the valley (see diagram). Katabatic winds space nocturnal phenomena in most parts the the world (i.e. They have tendency to occur at night) together there is surface ar cooling, especially when there is small cloud and also due to absence of heater by the sun.

Katabatic wind speeds do not typically not exceed 3 or 4 m/s. However, whereby the floor is spanned with eye or ice, katabatic winds can occur at any kind of time of work or night with speeds regularly reaching 10 m/s, or even more if funnelling v narrow valleys occurs. Katabatic winds may bring about the development of frost, mist and also fog in valleys.

Sea Breeze

Sea breezes space the result of differential heating of the land and also the sea. Sea breezes occur by day, as soon as the land i do not care warmer than the sea.

Warm air from the floor cannot expand into the sea together the waiting is cooler and much more dense, therefore it broadens up right into the atmosphere. Cumulus clouds have tendency to form as the warm air rises end the floor to around 500-1500m.

The diagram below shows the whole sea breeze process.

Air in sea breezes is cool and moist contrasted to the air end the land. Sea breezes can move 70km inland in pleasant climates by 9pm in the evening. Sea breezes can be noticed several kilometres out to sea. In the tropics they deserve to be feel 20km from the land. Wind speeds from sea breezes can be around 4-8m/s yet can be also stronger.


Land Breezes

Land breezes take place at night and in the beforehand morning, when the soil is cooler 보다 the sea. This is because as the wait cools in the night time (as there is less heating indigenous the sun) it contracts. Pressure is greater over the land than the sea. This causes the wait to circulation from the land come the sea i beg your pardon is well-known as a land breeze. The circulation is perfect by wait rising and moving towards the land at 100-300m.

This is presented on the chart below.


Cumulus clouds from wherein there is rising air. Land sea breeze fronts often tend to only impact a small area that 10-15km out to sea, in comparison to the lot larger result of sea breezes. Wind speed are likewise lower in ~ 2-3m/s.




As fine as local winds and also local weather phenomena, the adhering to list includes seasonal winds with local names:

The Bise

A cold dried wind i m sorry blows from the north-east, phibìc or north-west in the mountainous regions of southeastern France and western Switzerland in winter months. The bise is accompanied by heavy cloud.

The Bora

The bora is a strong, cold and also gusty north-easterly wind which descends to the Adriatic Sea native the Dinaric Alps, the hills behind the Dalmatian shore (the coast of Croatia). The is a winter phenomenon that establishes when a slow-moving depression is centred over the plain of Hungary and western Balkans so the winds space blowing from the eastern towards the Dinaric Alps. These mountains form a obstacle which catch the cold air come the eastern of castle whilst the Adriatic coast remains comparatively mild. Gradually, though, the depth the the cold air rises until the air flows end passes and also through valleys to reach the Adriatic Sea.

The bora starts suddenly and without warning and the cold air generally descends come the coast so rapidly that that has tiny time to warmth up.

The bora can reach speeds of an ext than 100 km/h and also has been recognized to overturn vehicles and also blow civilization off their feet.

The Chinook Wind

A warm, westerly wind discovered in western north America – Canada and the USA, once air indigenous the Pacific blows over the Rocky Mountains and other upland areas. ~ above January 15th, 1972, the Chinook caused the temperature in Lorna, Montana to increase from -48°C to 9°C in 24 hours! The more quickly wind rate recorded throughout a Chinook was 107mph, in Alberta, Canada.

The Crachin

The name offered to the drizzly weather v low stratus, mist or fog which wake up from time to time during the duration January come April over the China Sea and in coastal areas between Shanghai and also Cape Cambodia. The occurs when cool, moist air from the phibìc encounters warm, moist air, and also it is increase by orographic lifting and/or by seaside convergence.

The Etesians/ Meltemi

The strong northerly winds which blow at times end the Aegean Sea and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea throughout the duration May come October. The winds are known as meltemi in Turkey.

The Föhn (or Foehn)

The Föhn is a warm, dry, gusty wind i m sorry occurs over the reduced slopes ~ above the lee side (the side which is not directly exposed come wind and weather) that a mountain barrier. It is a result of forcing stable air over a hill barrier. The onset of a Föhn is normally sudden. For example, the temperature may rise an ext than 10°C in 5 minutes and the wind strength rise from nearly calm come gale force just as quickly. Föhn winds occur quite regularly in the Alps (where the name Föhn originated) and also in the Rockies (where the name chinook is used). They likewise occur in the Moray Firth and also over eastern parts of new Zealand’s south Island. In addition, they happen over eastern Sri Lanka throughout the south-west monsoon.

The hazard of a Föhn whereby there are steep snow-covered slopes is the avalanches may an outcome from the sudden warming and also blustery conditions. In Föhn conditions, family member humidity may loss to much less than 30%, causing vegetation and also wooden buildings to dry out. This is a long-standing trouble in Switzerland, whereby so plenty of fire catastrophes have developed during Föhn problems that fire-watching is obligatory once a Föhn is blowing.

An explanation of the Föhn result in the UK from BBC weather.

The Gregale (or Grigale)/ Euroclydon/ Euraquilo

A well known wind of the western Mediterranean which additionally blows across main parts of the Mediterranean Sea. That is a strong and cold wind from the north-east and also occurs greatly in winter. That is many pronounced on the island the Malta, whereby it sometimes reaches hurricane force and also endangers shipping.

The bible tells us that the ship which carried St Paul and other prisoners across the Mediterranean en path to Rome was moved by a storm indigenous Crete to Malta, whereby it was ultimately wrecked.

The ship set sail indigenous a bay called Fair Havens near Lasea on the south shore of Crete, having actually put into this bay come wait because that favourable conditions after gift delayed by contrary winds. Together the bay was exposed come storms, it was not thought about a safe place to continue to be at the time of year in question, which was either late September or early October. The harbour at Phoenix on the south-western shore of Crete was considered a safer ar to spend the winter. Quickly after the delivery left fair Havens, however, a significant gale began to blow. So violent to be the storm that the sailors can do no much more than drift through the wind. The scriptures tells united state that the ship reached Malta fourteen work later.

Paul experienced a gregale. As these winds normally last no an ext than four or five days, the storm he experienced appears to have actually been person who is abnormal persistent.

The Harmattan

A dry and comparatively cool wind which blows from the eastern or north-east ~ above the coast of phibìc Africa between Cabo Verde and the Gulf that Guinea throughout the dry season (November to March). It brings dust and sand indigenous the Sahara Desert, regularly in enough quantity to kind a thick fog which hinders navigating on rivers. Dust and sand room sometimes brought many numerous kilometres out to sea.

The Helm Wind

An easterly wind discovered in Cumbria, N. England, whereby the winds punch over cross Fell and also then descend right into the Eden Valley. A financial institution of cloud creates over the hill tops, and the roaring the the wind can be heard as much away together Penrith.

Discovering britain A walk across an excellent Dun fell from the RGS, trying out the Helm wind and also lots of other weather, and also stories that sheep, socks, snow and also spies and also a relevant short article from Weather: The Helm wind that Cross dropped .

The Kaus/Suahili

The name provided to the south-easterly winds which prevail in winter (December come April) in the Persian Gulf. They room accompanied through gloomy weather, rain and squalls and are sometimes complied with by very strong south-westerly winds called suahili.

The Khamsin

A hot, dry, dust-laden, southerly wind end Egypt, the Red Sea and eastern components of the Mediterranean Sea front of eastward-moving depressions. That occurs during the duration February to June, being most constant in March and April. The Khamsin is a Sirocco wind, whose name comes from the Arabic word for ‘fifty’, i m sorry is around the size of time the wind blows for. In the nineteenth Century, the torment was worst in Egypt when the Khamsin was blowing.

The Kharif

A strong south-westerly wind which blows daily over the Gulf of Aden from about 22:00 hrs until about noon the complying with day. It wake up in June, July and also August (during the south-west monsoon) and also frequently reaches gale force.

The Leste

A hot, dry, southerly wind which occurs in winter and also spring in between Madeira and Gibraltar and along the shore of phibìc Africa ahead of an proceeding depression.

The Levanter

A moist wind which blows from the east over the Strait the Gibraltar. The is frequently accompanied by fog or fog and may occur at any type of time that year, despite it is most usual in the duration June come October. A function is the event of a ‘banner cloud’ expanding a kilometre or an ext downwind from the summit the the rock of Gibraltar.

The toughness of the Levanter go not generally exceed Beaufort force 5. Once it is strong, however, facility and vigorous atmospheric eddies kind in the lee that the Rock, causing daunting conditions because that yachtsmen and the pilots the aircraft. The levanter can additionally cause persistently foggy weather on the shore of Spain.

The Levenche

A hot, dry, southerly wind i m sorry blows top top the south-east coastline of Spain front of an advancing depression. The is commonly laden with sand and also dust, and its method is regularly heralded by a belt the brownish cloud on the southerly horizon.

The Libeccio

A strong, squally, south-westerly wind which wake up over central parts of the Mediterranean Sea, most typical in winter.

The Maestro

The name offered to north-westerly winds over the Adriatic Sea, the Ionian Sea and seaside regions that Sardinia and also Corsica.

The Marin

A strong south-easterly wind end the Golfe du Lion. That is commonly accompanied by warm, cloudy weather v rain.

The Mistral

The mistral is additionally a strong and often violent wind. It blows native the phibìc or north-west under the Rhône sink of southern France and across the Rhône Delta to the Golfe du Lion and sometimes beyond. Despite strongest and most constant in winter, it may blow at any kind of time that year and also develops when stable air is compelled through the Rhône Valley. That occurs once a depression is centred over north-west Italy and also the Ligurian Sea and a ridge that high pressure extends north-eastward across the just of Biscay.

It may blow continuously for a work or two and attain speeds of 100 km/h, causing significant damage to crops and also making steering conditions complicated in the Rhône Valley. It gets rid of clouds and also pollution out of the air. In the Rhone sink in France, trees lean to the South due to the fact that of the force of the Mistral.

The Norther

This name for a wind is provided in more than one place. In Chile, a Norther is a northerly gale through rain. It usually occurs in winter however occasionally wake up at various other times the year. Typically, it have the right to be identified by falling air pressure, a cloudy or overcast sky, an excellent visibility and water levels below normal follow me the coast.

Over the Gulf that Mexico and also western parts of the Caribbean Sea, Northers room strong, cool, northerly winds i m sorry blow mainly in winter. End the Gulf that Mexico, lock are periodically humid and also accompanied by precipitation, yet over the Gulf that Tehuantepec they space dry winds.


The name given to severe line squalls in Argentina and Uruguay, specifically in the Rio de la Plata area. Lock are linked with significant cold fronts and also are normally accompanied through rain, thunder and lightning, a spicy drop in temperature and also a sudden change of wind direction indigenous northerly or northwesterly to southerly or southern westerly. They room most likely to occur during the duration June to September.

Roaring forties

Strong westerly winds found in the southerly Hemisphere in between 40 and 50 levels South. Cruising ships have constantly made use of them. The winds are lot stronger in the southerly Hemisphere because there is very small land to slow them under – just Tasmania, brand-new Zealand and also the an extremely bottom of south America.

The Santa Ana

A hot, dry, strong, blustery, föhn-type wind i beg your pardon blows native the north-east or eastern over southerly California and also carries through it huge quantities that dust. That is most regular in winter however may additionally occur in spring or autumn. It may acquire its name from the Santa Ana hills or the Santa Ana Canyon however other possibilities space that the derives native santanas, an interpretation ‘devil winds’, or the Spanish Satanás, meaning Satan. This winds can reason a great deal that damage. As they are hot and also dry, they cause vegetation to dried out, so increasing the danger of wildfires; and once fires start the winds pan the flames and hasten the spread of the fires. In spring, Santa Ana winds can reason considerable damage to fruit trees.


Strictly, the shamal is any kind of north-westerly wind end the Persian Gulf and Gulf that Oman, yet the term usually refers not to the normal prevailing winds but to the squally gale-force winds accompanied by rain and thunder which happen in winter.

The Scirocco/ Sirocco

A hot, dried wind southerly wind which blows indigenous the Sahara in north Africa right into the southerly Mediterranean. It picks up moisture together it crosses the Mediterranean and can with Spain, France, Italy and Greece pass Saharan dust and hot, windy, wet weather, frequently with fog or low stratus cloud. In spring, the Sirocco can carry gale pressure winds. Over there are numerous local names for the Sirocco, including chom, arifi, Simoom, Ghibli, Chili, Khamsin, Solano, Leveche, Marin and also Jugo.

The Solano

An easterly or south-easterly wind, through rain, which wake up in the Strait of Gibraltar and also over south-eastern coasts of Spain.


The name provided to the violent squalls i beg your pardon are linked with well-defined active cold fronts over coastal regions the southern and south-eastern Australia. They room accompanied by lightning, thunder and also gale-force winds and also are comparable to pamperos. They room most regular in summer but may additionally occur in spring and also autumn.


These are characteristically squally regional winds which take place over the Malacca Strait numerous times a month during the duration April to November. Lock are always accompanied by hefty rain indigenous cumulonimbus clouds and also are virtually always accompanied by lightning and thunder. They space initiated by katabatic winds and also therefore have tendency to happen at night.


A violent squally wind indigenous the phibìc or north-east in the Gulf that Tehuantepec in winter. That originates in the Gulf the Mexico together a norther and also blows across the Isthmus that Tehuantepec.

The trade wind

Easterly winds in the Tropics (between the Tropic that Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn). The profession winds helped European explorers with America.


A cold, dry, northerly or north-westerly wind over the coastline of Catolina and also a cold, dried northerly or north-easterly wind over the west coastline of Italy and the north coastline of Corsica. The is generally a solid wind but does not regularly reach gale force.

The Vendavales

Strong, squally, south-westerly winds turn off the east coast of Spain and also in the Strait the Gibraltar. They happen mainly throughout the period September come March and are regularly accompanied by violent squalls, hefty rain and thunderstorms.


A sudden, cold, violent wind uncovered in Alaska and Cape Horn which blows indigenous the hills to the sea.


A willy-willy is a dust storm end north-west Australia. Much more information.

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The Zonda/Sondo

This term uses to two different phenomena. That usually refers to a dry and often dusty föhn wind that occurs end the east slopes of the Andes in central Argentina in winter months. It is additionally the name (or sondo) provided to a hot, humid, northerly wind end the Pampas an ar of south America in development of an eastward-moving depression and preceding a pampero occurrence.