I to be definitely lacking something. Determine how plenty of valence electron come from every subshell in the adhering to atoms:P in PO4^3-O in PO4^3-I took this to typical that the inquiry is questioning how numerous v.e. Are being contributed by O and P. Therefore O has actually 6 valence electrons (it is in team 6), and 6*4 is 24. A complete of 24 valence electrons. Similar method for p would give 5v.e. How does Kaplan obtain 10 for P and also 8 because that O?
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I think they are asking because that the total variety of electrons for each that the atoms as soon as they room in the structureSo if you draw out the structure, you have actually 5 binding on ns which means 10 electrons (5 are coming indigenous P and 5 room covalently common from O)and for O, every oxygen has actually the 8 electrons in complete when the is part of this structure

I agree the Q is a bit confusing as worded however if they room sticking with the correct answer (which makes no point out of subshells??), drawing the Lewis framework on questions favor these deserve to make them much easier to deal with correctly. Here we deserve to see there room 10 full valence electrons about P and 8 full valence electrons about each Oxygen.

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The answer says there space 2 s-electrons, 6 p-electrons, and 2 d-electrons. I understand just how you gain 10 valence electrons total, however can who please define where the 2 d electron come from for the p in PO_4 (3-)?
This is exactly how I thought around it.Fact: All facets in period three and below on the regular table have the right to accept electrons right into their d subshell.Process:The electron configuration (shorthand) for ns is 3s2 3p3 so you acquire 5 valence electrons from P. The oxygens also contribute 5 valence electrons v bonding. This provides us a total of 10 electrons.We know that the s subshell deserve to only hold 2 electrons and the p subshell have the right to only organize 6 electrons. This will account because that 8 the end of the 10 electrons. However, now the s and also p subshells space full. The last 2 electrons are organized in P"s d subshell (which is usually empty because that elemental phosphorus).A similar thing in reality happens when analyzing the sulfur in a sulfate ion. 4 electrons finish up start the sulfur"s d subshell.
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Don"t acquire Psyched: just how would you recognize that oxygen will add 5 valence electrons with bonding without illustration a Lewis structure, or is that your reasoning after seeing there are 5 bonds to p (thus, 10 electron in total for P)? I simply wanted to know if ns am lacking something in your logic. Many thanks!
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