Learning Objectives

Explain exactly how organizations regulate offerings ~ being presented to the marketplace.Explain how controlling an offering might be various in international markets.Explain the product life cycle and the objectives and strategies for each stage.

You are watching: Product life cycle of coca cola

Over 20,000 brand-new offerings, consisting of convenience foods, health and also beauty aids, electronics, automobiles, pharmaceutical products, hotels, restaurants, and so on, enter the marketplace every year. Because that example, in 2006 nearly 1,400 food products making a “whole serial claim” were presented (Roskelly, 2010). Other recent brand-new product introductions include many technical products such as Nintendo’s Wii, iPhones, and digital video recorders (DVRs); many brand-new personal care products together as brand-new fragrances that shampoo and also conditioner and brand-new flavors of toothpaste; and brand-new convenience foods such as frozen meals, “100 calorie pack” snacks, and also cereal bars (Hunter, 2008).

Video Clip

Oreo 100 Calorie Pack

(click to check out video)

The 100 Calorie Packs offered by Nabisco showed to be exceptionally popular.

Once a product is created and introduced in the marketplace, the offering have to be controlled effectively because that the customer to obtain value indigenous it. Only if this is done will the product’s producer achieve its profit objectives and be able come sustain the providing in the marketplace. The process involves making many facility decisions, specifically if the product is being presented in an international markets. Prior to introducing products in an international markets, one organization must evaluate and understand components in the outside environment, consisting of laws and regulations, the economy and also stage of financial development, the competitors and also substitutes, social values, and also market needs. Companies additionally need expertise to effectively launch products in foreign markets. Given many feasible constraints in worldwide markets, companies could initially present a product in minimal areas abroad. Other organizations, such as Coca-Cola, decision to compete in sectors worldwide1.

The product life cycle (PLC) includes the stages the product goes v after development, from development to the end of the product. Simply as children go through different phases in life (toddler, primary school school, adolescent, young adult, and so on), products and services likewise age and go through different stages. The PLC is a valuable tool that helps marketers regulate the stages of a product’s acceptance and success in the marketplace, beginning with the product’s introduction, its growth in sector share, maturity, and also possible decrease in sector share. Various other tools such together the Boston Consulting group matrix and also the basic Electric method (see chapter 2 “Strategic Planning” for discussion) may additionally be provided to manage and make decisions about what to do with products. Because that example, once a industry is no much longer growing but the product is doing fine (cash cow in the BCG approach), the agency may decide to usage the money from the cash cow come invest in other assets they have actually rather than proceeding to invest in the product in a no-growth market.

The product life cycle can vary for different products and different product categories. Figure 7.8 “Life Cycle” illustrates an example of the product life cycle, showing just how a product deserve to move through four stages. However, not all assets go through all stages and also the length of a stage varies. For example, some assets never experience industry share growth and also are withdrawn indigenous the market.

Figure 7.8 Life Cycle

Figure 7.9

Diet Coke readjusted its can to keep from acquiring outdated.

Other commodities stay in one stage much longer than others. Because that example, in 1992, PepsiCo presented a product dubbed Clear Pepsi, which go from arrival to decrease very rapidly. By contrast, Diet Coke gone into the development market shortly after its development in the early 1980s and then gone into (and remains in) the mature phase of the product life cycle. New computer products and also software and video games often have restricted life cycles, whereas product category such as diamonds and also durable products (kitchen appliances) normally have much longer life cycles. Just how a product is promoted, priced, distributed, or modification can likewise vary transparent its life cycle. Let’s currently look at the assorted product life bicycle stages and also what characterizes each.

The arrival Stage

The an initial stage in a product’s life cycle is the arrival stage. The advent stage is the same as commercialization, or the last phase of the new product advance process. Marketing prices are typically greater in this phase than in various other stages. Together an analogy, think about the quantity of fuel a airplane needs for takeoff family member to the amount it needs while in the air. Just as an plane needs more fuel for takeoff, a brand-new product or organization needs much more funds for arrival into the marketplace. Interaction (promotion) is necessary to generate awareness that the product and persuade consumers to shot it, and placement options and supply chains are needed to supply the product to the customers. Profits are regularly low in the introduce stage as result of the study and breakthrough costs and the marketing prices necessary come launch the product.

The size of the introductory phase varies for various products. However, by regulation in the unified States, a firm is only enabled to usage the label “new” top top a product’s parcel for 6 months. An organization objectives during the introduce stage frequently involve educating potential customers about its value and also benefits, producing awareness, and getting potential customers to try the product or service. Obtaining products and services, particularly multinational brands, embraced in foreign markets deserve to take even longer. Consequently, companies presenting products and services abroad normally must have the financial resources to make a irreversible (longer 보다 one year) commitment to their success.

The specific promotional methods a company uses to launch a product vary depending on the form of product and the number of competitors it encounters in the market. Firms that manufacture assets such as cereals, snacks, toothpastes, soap, and also shampoos frequently use mass marketing techniques such as tv commercials and also Internet campaigns and also promotional program such together coupons and also sampling to reach consumers. To with wholesalers and also retailers such as Walmart, Target, and also grocery stores, this firm utilize an individual selling. Plenty of firms promote to customers, retailers, and also wholesalers. Periodically other, an ext targeted advertising strategies space employed, such as billboards and transit indications (signs on buses, taxis, subways, and so on). For more technical or expensive assets such as computers or plasma televisions, numerous firms utilize professional selling, informational promotions, and in-store demonstrations therefore consumers can see how the commodities work.

Figure 7.10


Many new convenient snack packages, such together jelly snacks and also packages of various sizes, are easily accessible in China and also the united States.

During introduction, an company must have actually enough circulation outlets (places whereby the product is offered or the organization is available) to get the product or company to the customers. The product amounts must likewise be accessible to meet demand. For example, IBM’s ThinkPad to be a huge hit when it was first introduced, but the need for it was so an excellent that IBM no able to develop enough the the product. Cooperation from a company’s supply chain members—its manufacturers, wholesalers, and so forth—helps ensure the supply meets demand and that value is included throughout the process.

When you were farming up, you might remember eating Rice Krispies Treats cereal, a really popular product. The product to be so renowned that Kellogg’s could not save up with initial demand and also placed ads to consumers apologizing because that the problem. When need is higher than supply, the door opens for rivals to enter the market, which is what taken place when the microwave to be introduced. Most people own a microwave, and prices have actually dropped significantly since Amana introduced the very first microwave in ~ a price of virtually $500. As consumers in the united States at first saw and heard around the product, sales boosted from forty thousand systems to over a million systems in only a few years. Sales in Japan boosted even much more rapidly because of a reduced price. As a an outcome of the high need in both countries, many rivals entered the market and prices dropped2.

Product pricing methods in the introduce stage deserve to vary depending upon the form of product, competing products, the extra worth the product provides consumers matches existing offerings, and also the costs of developing and producing the product. Organizations want consumer to perceive the a new offering is better or more desirable than existing products. Two tactics that are widely offered in the introductory stage room penetration pricing and skimming. A penetration pricing strategy entails using a short initial price come encourage numerous customers to try a product. The organization wishes to sell a high volume in order to generate comprehensive revenues. Brand-new varieties that cereals, fragrances of shampoo, fragrant of detergents, and also snack foodstuffs are regularly introduced at low initial prices. Rarely does a agency utilize a high price strategy through a product such as this. The short initial price the the product is often linked with advertising, coupons, samples, or other special incentives to rise awareness of the product and get consumer to shot it.

A agency uses a skimming pricing strategy, i m sorry involves setting a high early price because that a product, to much more quickly recoup the investment pertained to its development and marketing. The skimming strategy attracts the top, or high end, that the market. Typically this market is composed of customers who space not together price sensitive or who are at an early stage adopters of products. That company that produce electronic assets such together DVRs, plasma televisions, and digital cameras collection their price high in the introductory stage. However, the high price must be consistent with the nature of the product as well as the various other marketing strategies being supplied to encourage it. Because that example, engaging in an ext personal marketing to customers, running ads targeting specific groups of customers, and placing the product in a limited number of circulation outlets are most likely to be methods firms usage in conjunction v a skimming approach.

The growth Stage

If a product is embraced by the marketplace, the enters the development stage of the product life cycle. The growth stage is defined by enhancing sales, more competitors, and higher profits. Unfortunately for the firm, the development stage attracts rivals who enter the market really quickly. For example, once Diet Coke experienced an excellent success, Pepsi soon entered with Diet Pepsi. You’ll an alert that both Coca-Cola and also Pepsi have comparable competitive offerings in the beverage industry, consisting of their very own brands of bottled water, juice, and also sports drinks. As extr customers start to to buy the product, manufacturers have to ensure the the product remains accessible to customers or operation the hazard of lock buying competitors’ offerings. For example, the producer of video clip game equipment such together Nintendo’s Wii might not store up with consumer demand when the product was very first launched. Consequently, part consumers purchased completing game equipment such together Microsoft’s Xbox.

Figure 7.11


Demand for the Nintendo Wii boosted sharply ~ the product’s introduction.

A agency sometimes increases its promotional security on a product during its development stage. However, rather of encouraging consumers to try the product, the promotions often emphasis on the details benefits the product offers and also its value loved one to competitive offerings. In various other words, return the company must quiet inform and educate customers, that must counter the competition. Emphasizing the benefits of the product’s brand surname can assist a company maintain the sales in the confront of competition. Although different organizations produce personal computers, a very recognized brand such together IBM strengthens a firm’s benefit when competitors enter the market. Brand-new offerings that make use of the same successful brand name as a company’s already existing offerings, i m sorry is what black color & Decker does with several of its products, can give a agency a competitive advantage. Service providers typically begin to make a profit during the growth stage because an ext units space being offered and an ext revenue is generated.

The variety of distribution outlets (stores and dealers) used to sell the product can also increase throughout the expansion stage as a agency tries to reach as lot of the marketplace as possible. Widening a product’s distribution and increasing its manufacturing to certain its accessibility at various outlets usually outcomes in a product’s prices remaining high throughout the growth stage. The price the the product itself generally remains at around the exact same level throughout the growth stage, although part companies reduce their price slightly to attract extr buyers and meet the competitors’ prices. Suppliers hope by raising their sales, they also improve your profits.

The Maturity Stage

After many competitors enter the market and the number of potential new customers declines, the sales of a product typically start to level off. This shows that a product has gone into the maturity phase of that is life cycle. Most consumer assets are in the mature phase of your life cycle; their buyers room repeat purchasers versus brand-new customers. Intense competition causes profits to autumn until just the the strongest players remain. The maturity phase lasts much longer than other stages. Quaker Oats and Ivory Soap are products in the maturity stage—they have been on the sector for end one hundreds years.

Given the competitive environment in the maturity stage, many products are advocated heavily to consumers by stronger competitors. The strategies provided to encourage the assets often emphasis on value and benefits that give the giving a vain advantage. The promotions aimed at a company’s distributors may also increase throughout the maturation stage. Companies might decrease the price of mature commodities to counter the competition. However, they must be cautious not to obtain into “price wars” with their competitors and destroy all the benefit potential of their markets, threaten a that company survival. Intel and progressed Micro devices (AMD) have engaged in numerous price wars v regard to your microprocessors. Likewise, Samsung included features and lowered the price top top its Instinct cell phone phone, engaging in a price war v Apple’s iPhone. With the dilute economy, numerous online retailers engaged in price wars during the 2008 holiday season by cutting price on your products and shipping costs; they repetitive this price war strategy in 2011. Although huge organizations such together Amazon.com have the right to absorb shipping costs, price wars often hurt smaller retailers. Many retailers learned from your mistakes and ordered less inventory for the 2009 vacation season; it continues to be to be checked out what will take place in the 2012 holiday season.

Companies are tested to develop strategies to extend the maturity phase of their commodities so they remain competitive. Numerous firms carry out so by editing and enhancing their target markets, your offerings, or their marketing strategies. Next, we look at each of these strategies.

Modifying the target sector helps a firm attract various customers by seeking new users, going after different market segments, or finding brand-new uses for a product in order to attract added customers. Financial institutions and also automobile dealers realized that women have increased purchase power and now market to them. With the development in the variety of online shoppers, more organizations offer their products and services with the Internet. Entering brand-new markets gives companies an chance to prolong the product life cycles that their various offerings.

Figure 7.12 McDonald’s in China


Many providers enter different geographic markets or international industries as a strategy to get brand-new users. A product that could be in the mature phase in one country could be in the introductory phase in one more market. For example, as soon as the U.S. Market came to be saturated, McDonald’s started opening restaurants in international markets. Cabinet phones were an extremely popular in Asia prior to they were presented in the united States. Countless cell phones in Asia space being offered to scan coupons and to fee purchases. However, the sector in the joined States can not be all set for that type of technology.

Figure 7.13


Older consumers in international industries are being targeted with different products.

Modifying the product, such as transforming its packaging, size, flavors, colors, or top quality can also extend the product’s maturity stage. The 100 Calorie Packs created by Nabisco carry out an example of exactly how a company changed the packaging and also size to provide convenience and one-hundred-calorie sections for consumers. When the sales of plenty of packaged foods items fell, the sales of the 100 Calorie Packs boosted to end $200 million, prompting Nabisco come repackage much more products (Hunter, 2008). Kraft Foods prolonged the mature phase of various crackers such together Wheat Thins and Triscuits by developing different flavors. Return not famous with consumers, countless companies downsize (or decrease) the package size of their assets or the lot of the product in the packages to conserve money and keep prices from climbing too much.

Car manufacturers modify their vehicles slightly annually to offer brand-new styles and brand-new safety features. Every 3 to 5 years, automobile manufacturers do an ext extensive modifications. Transforming the package or adding variations or attributes are typical ways to extend the mature stage of the life cycle. Pepsi recently readjusted the design and also packaging that its soft drinks and Tropicana juice products. However, consumers believed the brand-new juice package looked choose a less expensive brand, which make the top quality of the product watch poorer. Together a result, Pepsi resumed the usage of the initial Tropicana carton. Pepsi’s redesigned soda cans additionally received negative consumer reviews.

Video Clip

Pepsi Rebranding

(click to check out video)

Changing pack designs does not always assist the brand.

Video Clip

Tropicana’s new Packaging

(click to view video)

Tropicana’s new (and currently abandoned) packaging watch didn’t compare well through the “orange and the straw” but is still used on the lower-calorie Tropicana.

When introducing commodities to worldwide markets, firms need to decide if the product deserve to be standardized (kept the same) or how much, if any, adaptation, or changing, the the product to accomplish the needs of the local culture is necessary. Although it is much much less expensive to standardize products and promotional strategies, social and environmental differences usually call for some adaptation. Product colors and also packages and product names must often be readjusted because of cultural and legit differences. For example, in many Asian and European countries, Coca-Cola’s diet drinks are called “light,” no diet, as result of legal constraints on exactly how the native diet deserve to be used. GE makes smaller appliances such as washers and dryers because that the Japanese market since houses often tend to be smaller and don’t have actually the room for larger models. Hyundai Motor company had to boost the quality of its automobiles in order to complete in the U.S. Market. Companies must likewise examine the external environment in foreign markets since the regulations, competition, and also economic conditions vary as well as the cultures.

Figure 7.15


In Europe, diet drinks are dubbed “light,” not diet. This Coca-Cola product is accessible in Germany.

Some companies modify the marketing strategy because that one or an ext marketing variables of their products. Because that example, countless coffee shops and also fast-food restaurants such as McDonald’s now offer specialty coffee that competes with Starbucks. Together a result, Starbucks’ managers made decision it was time to adjust the company’s strategy. Over the years, Starbucks had included lunch offerings and moved far from grind coffee in the stores to administer faster business for the customers. However, client missed the coffee shop atmosphere and also the aroma of fresh brewed coffee and didn’t favor the odor of every the lunch items.

As a an outcome of falling market share, Starbucks’ former CEO and founder Howard Schultz went back to the company. Schultz hired consultants come determine exactly how to change the that company offering and also extend the maturity phase of your life cycle. Subsequently, Starbucks changed the atmosphere of many of the stores back to that of traditional coffee shops, amendment its lunch offerings in many stores, and also resumed grinding coffee in shop to provide the aroma customers missed. The firm also modified several of its offerings to provide health-conscious consumer lower-calorie choices (Horovitz, 2008). After the U.S. Economic situation weakened in 2009, Starbucks announced it would start selling instant coffee for around a disagreement a cup come appeal to customers who were struggling financially but still want a one-of-a-kind cup that coffee. The firm also changed its communication with customers by utilizing an ext interactive media such together blogs.

Whereas Starbucks can have overexpanded, McDonald’s to plan to include fourteen thousands coffee bars come selected stores3. In addition to the coffee bars, countless McDonald’s stores space remodeling your interiors to feature flat display televisions, recessed lighting, and also wireless web access. Other McDonald’s restaurants preserved their original design, which client still like.

The decrease Stage

When sales decrease and continue come drop to reduced levels, the product has gotten in the decrease stage the the product life cycle. In the decline stage, changes in customer preferences, technical advances, and choices that meet the exact same need have the right to lead to a to decrease in need for a product. How numerous of your other students perform you think have used a typewriter, adding machine, or on slide rule? computer systems replaced the typewriter and also calculators replaced adding machines and also the slide rule. Ask your parents around eight-track tapes, which were popular prior to cassette tapes, which to be popular before CDs, which were popular before MP3 players and also Internet radio. Part products decrease slowly. Rather go v a fast level of decline. Plenty of fads and fashions because that young world tend to have very short life cycles and go “out the style” an extremely quickly. (If you’ve ever asked your parents to borrow clothing from the 1990s, you might be amused at exactly how much the formats have changed.) Similarly, numerous students don’t have landline phones or VCR players and cannot believe that civilization still use the “outdated” devices. Some outdated devices, prefer payphones, disappear almost completely as they end up being obsolete.

Technical assets such as digital cameras, cabinet phones, and video games the appeal to young human being often have restricted life cycles. Companies must decide what techniques to take as soon as their commodities enter the decrease stage. To conserve money, part companies shot to mitigate their promotional expenditure on these products and also the number of distribution outlets in i m sorry they are sold. They might implement price cuts to acquire customers come buy the product. Harvesting the product involves gradually reducing all costs spent top top it, consisting of investments do in the product and also marketing costs. Through reducing this costs, the agency hopes the the earnings from the product will boost until their inventory operation out. An additional option for the firm is divesting (dropping or deleting) the product indigenous its offerings. The company might select to market the brand to another firm or simply reduce the price considerably in bespeak to get rid of all staying inventory. If a agency decides to keep the product, the may shed money or do money if competitors drop out. Many companies decision the best strategy is to modify the product in the maturity stage to stop entering the decrease stage.

Key Takeaway

The product life cycle help a company understand the stages (introduction, growth, maturity, and decline) a product or service may walk through as soon as it is released in the marketplace. The number and also length that stages have the right to vary. As soon as a product is introduced or commercialized, that enters the arrival stage. Carriers must try to create awareness that the product and encourage consumer to try it. Throughout the development stage, service providers must demonstrate the product’s benefits and also value to guide customers to buy the versus competing products. Some products never suffer growth. The bulk of products are in the maturation stage. In the tires stage, sales level off and also the market frequently has countless competitors. Suppliers modify the target market, the offering, or the marketing mix in stimulate to prolong the maturation stage and also keep indigenous going into decline. If a product goes into decline, a agency must decide whether to save the product, harvest and reduce the safety on it until all the perform is sold, or divest and also get rid that the product.

Review Questions

Explain what a firm that sells a product v a restricted life bicycle (such as software) should do in each phase so over there is not a lot of inventory left over once a more recent version is introduced?Explain why the marketing costs related to a product space typically greater during the arrival stage and also why companies should generate awareness the the new product or service and encourage consumer to try it.Explain why and also when penetration and skimming pricing are provided in the advent stage.What phase of the life bike is a product in as soon as the firm cannot satisfy the need for it and competitors begin to get in the market?What different strategies perform firms use to expand the life cycles that their assets throughout the maturity stage?How go Kraft expand the mature phase of the product life bicycle of Wheat Thins crackers?Explain the difference in between harvesting and a divesting as soon as a for sure enters the decline stage.

1“Best global Brands,” Interbrand, 2009, http://www.interbrand.com/best_global_brands.aspx?langid=1000 (accessed January 20, 2010).

2“Microwave Oven,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microwave_oven (accessed January 20, 2010).

3“Starbucks v McDonald’s,” Economist, January 10, 2008, http://www.economist.com/business/displaystory.cfm?story_id=10498747 (accessed January 20, 2010).


Horovitz, B., “Starbucks order an Extra Shot; Founder bring away Over together CEO to Perk increase Coffee Chain,” USA Today, January 8, 2008, 1B.

Hunter, M., “The True price of the 100-Calorie Snack Pack,” ABC News, July 15, 2008, http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=5373173&page=1&mediakit=adgallery10 (accessed January 20, 2010).

See more: Generation Of Proton Gradients Across Membranes Occurs During

Roskelly, N., “Partial to whole Grains,” New assets Online, http://www.newproductsonline.com/Archives_Davinci?article=1979 (accessed January 20, 2010).