Did you know that the skeletal in our body compromise majorly that phosphate ion (tricalcium phosphate)? It’s not only current in ours bones but even in our this as well. That sounds rather interesting, right?

It’s not only crucial for humans yet for plants together well. So it’s necessary we learn around this compound and also see what renders it therefore special.

You are watching: Po3 3- polar or nonpolar

Phosphate or PO43- is a trivalent inorganic anion that is obtained from phosphoric acid. It is composed of a variety of salts that contain the phosphate ion, the dihydrogen phosphate ion, and lots of cations (positive charge) prefer calcium, sodium, etc. The occurs naturally in food, water as well in human beings (bones, teeth, and genes).

USA, China, and also Morocco are right now the top producers of phosphate because of the maximum visibility of phosphate rocks (minerals) in this countries.

Now the you realize its importance, permit us research PO43- in detail and also learn around its Lewis structure, Hybridization, shape, and also polarity.

PO43- Lewis Structure

Before we start to draw the Lewis framework of PO43- step by action let us look at an overview of how the Lewis framework will look at like.

To attract the Lewis framework of any kind of compound, we always use the principle of valence electron (number of electrons in the external shell of every atom).

The overall charge top top the phosphate ion is -3 and also the phosphorus atom is in one oxidation state of +5.

In the Lewis structure of PO43-, ns forms single bonds through 3 oxygen atoms and also forms a dual bond with one oxygen atom. This oxygen atoms carry a fee of -1.

Let us now look that steps compelled for drawing a Lewis structure:-

1. Count the total variety of valence electron of the molecule.

2. Locating the central atom that the molecule.

3. Arranging the electrons together lone pairs to kind bonds with each atom.

4. Setup of the staying valence electrons so the each atom completes that octet.

5. Converting potential lone bag into dual or triple binding to do the molecule more stable. We also check the formal fee of every atom and also make sure that it is the shortest possible.


The ideal Lewis structure of any kind of molecule will have actually 0 together the ideal formal fee for every atom. The formula because that calculating formal charge is provided below:-

Steps of illustration lewis framework of PO43-

1. Let united state count the total variety of valence electrons for the molecule PO43-. P belongs to group 5, hence has actually 5 valence electrons. O belongs to group 6, hence has 6×4= 24 valence electrons (4 atoms of O).

Now over there is a charge of -3 on the entirety atom which method there are 3 added valence electron present. Hence, total number of valence electrons is 5+24+3= 32 valence electrons.

2. The atom which has the highest possible valence factor, and the highest possible bonding sites, is termed together the central atom. Adhering to this reasoning P is the main atom the PO43-.

3. Now we start arranging these electrons as lone bag on every atom so that it resembles a chemical bond. 8 valence electron are used up because that this.

4. Currently we species the staying 24 valence electrons roughly each atom so that it completes its octet. We observe the all 32 valence electron are now used up.

5. Currently we check the formal fee of every atom that PO43-. We watch that P has a +1 charge and all the O atoms have a -1 charge. Now, this looks all fine.


But is this the shortest formal fee possible? Remember the the charges on every atom that a molecule make it an ext unstable. Therefore the finest Lewis structure have to ideally have each atom v a fee of 0 on it.

In PO43-, P can hold an ext than 8 valence electrons (period 5). So, if P renders a dual bond with one of the oxygen atoms then ns will have actually a charge of 0 and so will the doubly bonded O atom. The remainder 3 O atom will have actually a -1 charge, thus offering rise come the -3 fee on the molecule.

We can not induce more twin bonds through O for the an easy reason that ns will obtain a -1 charge which will make the molecule highly unstable.

Thus, we obtain the required best Lewis framework for PO43-.

PO43- Hybridization


Let us now take a look in ~ the Hybridization the the molecule i beg your pardon will offer us an ext information on the nature of your chemical bonds.

The Hybridization of PO43- is Sp3.

This deserve to be understood through 2 methods:-

Method 1: The concept aspect- Hybridization of PO43- have the right to be found by adding the number of bonds and the lone pair of the main atom. The value of Hybridization (H) is figured out by:-

If H=2 then it’s sp hybridized.

If H=3, then its sp2 hybridized.

H=4 means that its sp3 hybridized.

H=5 means that that is sp3d hybridized.

And H=6 way that that sp3d2 hybridized.

In PO43-, we recognize P is the main atom. It makes 4 sigma bonds with each O atom (double bonds/triple bond are taken into consideration as one sigma bond) and also it has actually no lone pairs present on it. So total value that H is 4, which provides the molecule Sp3 hybridized.

Method 2: Next we pertained to the formula aspect of hybridization. This is useful if girlfriend don’t mental the theory.The formula to find the Hybridization of any molecule is given below:-

H= 1/2

H= Hybridization of the molecule

V= number of Valence electrons of the main atom.

C= charge on cation or more electropositive atom.

A= charge on anion or more electropositive atom.

Now let united state look in ~ PO43-,

Here p is the main atom for this reason V =5 (valence electrons)

M= 0, since Oxygen (O), is a divalent atom, for this reason there are no monovalent atom bonded to the central atom.

C = 0 (charge on P)

A= -3 (Combined charge of O atoms)



H=4, indicating the PO43- is sp3 hybridized.

Hence, the hybridization of PO43- deserve to be found by using these two methods.

PO43- molecular Geometry

The next necessary step is to identify the molecule geometry the PO43-.

The molecule geometry of a molecule gives its shape and also the link angles.

The molecular geometry the PO43- is Tetrahedral. The bond edge formed in between each atom is 109.5 degrees.

The notation AXN can be supplied to identify the molecule geometry of any kind of molecule. A denotes the number of central atoms.

X denotes the number of atoms that are chemically bonded to the central atom. And also finally, N denotes the lone bag on the central atom ( the nonbonding electrons).

Looking at PO43-, A=1 due to the fact that P is the only main atom. X= 4 together there 4 atom of O attached to the central atom. N will be zero together all the electrons are connected in bonding and also there room no lone pairs. Hence using the formula, we acquire the form for PO43- as AX4.

If us look up this notation in the VSEPR graph given listed below we find that PO43- has actually a tetrahedral shape.


PO43- Polarity

PO43- is a non-polar molecule.

Electronegativity distinction is the key factor as result of which polarity wake up in a molecule. Polar molecules usually have an asymmetrical shape and also their network dipole minute is never zero.

The electronegativity difference between P (2.1) and also O(3.5) is higher than 0.5 make the P-O shortcut polar. But is PO43- together a molecule polar?

For that, we an initial draw the Lewis structure and then draw the dipole moments for each bond. Due to PO43- having a symmetry structure, the dipole moments cancel each other out calculation the molecule non-polar.

To check this fact, us can additionally take a look at its molecular geometry. It has actually a tetrahedral shape with each dipole moment going in the contrary direction, make the network dipole moment 0 which renders PO43- a non-polar molecule.


The molar massive of PO43- is 94.97 g/mol. It is generally used in toothpaste as polishing and also a conditioning agent. That is additionally used in various cleaning agents and also pesticides too making it quite valuable for getting rid the dirt.

See more: Which One Of The Following Choices Is A Common Monosaccharide Found In The Diet?

So now, we have learned everything we have to know about the PO43- molecule varying from that Lewis structure, hybridization, molecular geometry, and polarity.

Now you have actually strengthened her basics because that the molecule P043-. If you have any doubts concerning the above-mentioned points please feel cost-free to address me. Examine Well!