i am a little confused around the principle of appropriate subsets,precisely even if it is to incorporate one or both of the void set and the set itself.

You are watching: Is the empty set a proper subset of all sets

An extract from my module goes favor this :

Obviously,every collection is the subset that itself and the void collection $emptyset$ is the subset the every set. These 2 subsets are dubbed improper subsets.

It also includes a theorem which claims that "Let A it is in a finite set having n elements. Then the total variety of subsets that A is ($2^n$) and the number of proper subsets of A is ($2^n-1).$"

Then again in a sample equipment of this problem "If A = a,b,c,then the number of proper subsets the A is ?"

Total no that subsets of a,b,c = $2^3$ = 8.But each collection have 2 improper subset, so number of improper subsets room 6.

Is this solution correct ? If for this reason please describe the concept.


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edited may 15 "17 in ~ 7:13
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Wrichik Basu
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QuixoticQuixotic
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Calling $emptyset$ and $A$ "improper" subsets the a set $A$ is not universal, and it is confound in this case, due to the fact that the meaning of "proper" is no the same. That is typical to say the $S$ is a suitable subset that $A$ if (and only if) every element of $S$ is an element of $A$, yet $S$ is not equal come $A$, i.e., at the very least one aspect of $A$ is no in $S$. Under this definition, $emptyset$ is a ideal subset that every nonempty set, even though it is "improper" follow to the convention friend were additionally given. Simply remember the mmsanotherstage2019.comematical hatchet varies and isn"t always logical. Right here "improper" does not average "not proper". (For this reason I would personally not usage the convention of phone call the empty set "improper".)

When detect all proper subsets, you have to count the empty set.


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answer Nov 10 "10 in ~ 5:45
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Jonas Meyer
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Given a set $A$, a appropriate subset is any set $B$ such the $Bsubseteq A$ and also $B eq A$; that is, $B$ is contained in $A$ yet is not equal come $A$. This is denoted by $Bsubset A$ in part texts.

So while $A$ is a subset of itself, it is not a suitable subset the itself. And this is true because that any set, also the empty collection (or void set, as you call it).

Speaking of which, the empty collection $emptyset$ is not only a subset of any set, but also a appropriate subset of any non-empty set.

Edited to incorporate a equipment to OP"s brand-new question:

You have the price in former of you. If $A$ has cardinality $n$, then the variety of subsets is $2^n$ and also the variety of proper subsets is $2^n-1$, due to the fact that the only set we need to "throw out" is $A$ chin in order to acquire all the suitable subsets.

So if $A=a,b,c$, then there space $2^3-1=7$ suitable subsets. We deserve to just list them:

$a,b$

$a,c$

$,c$

$a$

$$

$c$

$emptyset$


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edited Nov 10 "10 at 5:52
reply Nov 10 "10 in ~ 5:46
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BeyBey
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A collection A is a subset that a set B if every element of A is also an aspect of B.

A set A is a appropriate subset the a set B if A is a subset the B and there is at least one facet of B that"s not an aspect of A.

Thus, the void set is a subset of every sets, and it"s a appropriate subset of every collection except itself.

Also, notification that us notate the void set using $emptyset$, not $phi$.


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answer Nov 10 "10 at 5:43
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The an easy idea right here is the of vacuous Truth. The global quantifier used to the empty collection is, by definition, true. In symbols, $forallxinemptyset , P(x)$ is true, nevertheless of the explain $P(x)$ (see likewise this Wikipedia page). This is mainly characterized this means for convenience, because otherwise friend would always have to think about the empty set as a special instance every time you used the global quantifier.

This apples come subsets since a set $Asubseteq B$ by an interpretation means $forall xin A , xin B$. If $A=emptyset$, then here $P(x)=xin B$, and also we view from the over that this must be true, i.e., $emptyset subseteq B$ because that any set $B$.

By the way, "proper subset" almost always means $Asubset B;,A eq B$, therefore of food $emptyset$ is a ideal subset of any set, except for itself.


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reply Dec 22 "10 in ~ 20:41
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asmeurerasmeurer
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By definition, a collection A is said to be a proper subset the another collection B if and also only if A is a subset of B and A is not equal come B. In other words, A is stated to be a appropriate subset the B if B isn"t a subset that A. Thus it complies with that the empty collection is a appropriate subset the every set.

See more: How Many Kids Does El Debarge Have, El Debarge And Kids


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answered may 6 "11 at 4:26
Irfan HassanIrfan Hassan
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Highly active question. Knife 10 call (not count the association bonus) in order come answer this question. The reputation necessity helps defend this inquiry from spam and also non-answer activity.

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