What is Ammonium Nitrate?

Ammonium nitrate is an ionic salt made up of the ammonium cation (NH4)+ and the nitprice anion (NO3)–. The chemical formula of this compound is NH4NO3.

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Ammonium nitprice conveniently dissolves in water by dissociating right into its constituent ions. This salt is acidic in nature since it is acquired from a weak base (NH3) and also a solid acid (HNO3).

NH4NO3 have the right to be all set from the acid-base reactivity between nitric acid and also ammonia, defined by the complying with chemical equation:

NH3 + HNO3 → NH4NO3

This reaction is extremely exothermic and proceeds violently. Ammonium nitrate is also known for its oxidizing powers. It is widely supplied in many type of explosives provided in the mining and also building sectors. NH4NO3 is additionally among the key components of ANFO, among the a lot of well-known options of industrial explosives.

Structure of Ammonium Nitrate

This compound functions an ionic bond in between an ammonium ion and a nitprice ion. The framework of an NH4NO3 molecule is shown listed below.


The pi electrons in the nitprice ion are delocalized due to resonance. The net charge on this ion is -1 (since the nitrogen atom holds a charge of +1 and each oxygen atom holds a charge of -⅔). Therefore, only one NH4+ ion can form an ionic bond via one NO3– ion.

Ammonium Nitrate Properties

Chemical Data

Chemical FormulaNH4NO3
Molar Mass/ Molecular Weight80.043 grams per mole
Density1.725 grams per cubic centimetre
Melting Point442.8K (169.6oC)
Boiling PointDecomposes at 483K (210oC)

Physical Properties

It has a trigonal crystal structure.It is rather soluble in water; its solubility at 20oC is 150g/100ml. The solubility rises to 1024g/100ml as soon as the temperature is elevated to 100oThe dissolution of NH4NO3 in H2O is highly endothermic.This compound has exceptionally low shock and also friction sensitivities.

Chemical Properties

When NH4NO3 is reacted with the hydroxides of alkali metals, the nitrates of alkali metals are created along with ammonia.When exploded, this compound returns N2, O2, and water as the by assets.In spite of being a component of many kind of explosives, ammonium nitprice is not an explosive by itself. It have to be combined with a main explosive such as an azide to develop an explosive mixture.

Uses of Ammonium Nitrate 

Some vital applications of this ionic salt are noted listed below.

NH4NO3 is a key component of many type of fertilizers considering that it is fairly affluent in nitrogen (34%).Another advantage of this compound is that it doesn’t shed its nitrogen to the environment, as is the case via urea.When blended through fuel oil, it creates an explosive well-known as ANFO, which is among the the majority of popular industrial explosives.The dissolution of this compound in water is rather endothermic, making it an ideal choice of material in immediate cold packs.It is likewise provided in the mining and also building sector as a component of explosives.

Despite its many applications, the usage of this compound is being slowly phased out by the governments of many kind of nations as a result of its scope for misusage. Ammonium nitrate was among the crucial ingredients of the explosives that were used in the 2011 Delhi bombings and the 2013 blasts in Hyderabad.

Used to make fertilizers and explosives, and also as a nutrient in antibiotic and yeastern development. Ammonium nitprice is the nitric acid ammonium salt. It has a function as a fertilizer, an oxidizing agent and an explosive.

Ammonium nitprice is not acid yet a salt yet the solution is acidic considering that it is a salt through a weak base (ammonium hydroxide) and a heavy nitric acid.

It feels cold when ammonium nitprice is liquified in water which suggests an endothermic reactivity. In an endothermic reactivity, the ammonium nitrate dissolves in water, a chemical reactivity that absorbs warm rather than releases it. Ammonium nitrate consists of tightly packed, ionic bonds.

Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound offered as a fertilizer in agriculture, for developing pyrotechnics, as an ingredient in cold packs, and for scientific demonstrations. This is likewise provided in mining and quarrying to develop managed explosions.

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Ammonium nitprice fertilizer is the compound’s many prevalent application yet it additionally has an extremely volatile high quality, making it beneficial in some industries. The usage of ammonium nitprice in gardens and massive growing fields stimulates plant development and also gives a all set source of nitrogen that plants deserve to attract from.