The head of the grasshopper is a hard capsule that contains big muscles, which operate the chewing mouthparts, and also the mind and subesophageal ganglion, which offer as the main centers that the concerned system. Prominent on the external of the capsule space a pair of antennae, two huge compound eyes, and also the downward directed mouthparts. The antennae of grasshoppers space usually filiform (threadlike) yet they may have other shapes, such together ensiform (broad in ~ base, narrowing come tip) or clavate (expanded in ~ tip) (Fig. 2). Compound eyes vary in shape and protuberance. They are usually somewhat round but may be elliptical in grasshoppers through strongly slanted faces.

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Figure 2. Chart of three develops of grasshopper antennae: filiform or threadlike, ensiform or sword-shaped, and clavate or society shaped




Figure 3. Grasshopper head, front, side, and also top views. Modeled after Trimerotropis pallidipennis (Burmeister).

The head capsule is split into areas by visible sutures, external ridges (carinae), or by general location (Fig. 3). The top of the head between the compound eyes is recognized as the vertex. Behind the peak is the occiput, and also in front of the crest is the fastigium. A pair of variously shaped depressions, the lateral foveolae, is often present in prior or in ~ the sides of the fastigium. The front of the head in between the link eyes and extending come the clypeus is known as the frons. A broad ridge, the frontal costa, runs under the middle of the frons indigenous the fastigium toward the margin of the clypeus. The next of the head below the link eye is called the gena or cheek. Grasshoppers have three straightforward eyes called ocelli — one above the basic of each antenna and one centrally situated in the frontal costa. These and also other parts and also appendages of the head are depicted in figure 3.

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The thorax, locomotion center of the grass-hopper, is a stout, boxlike structure consisting of three fused segments: the prothorax, mesothorax, and metathorax. Every segment bears a pair the legs. The second segment bear a pair that fore-wings, the tegmina, and also the third segment a pair the membranous hindwings. The wings of a couple of species are decreased to small pads or are completely lacking. The height of the thoracic segments is dubbed the notum, the bottom the sternum, and the sides the pleura.


Figure 4. Grasshopper pronotum, side and also top views. Modeled after Trimerotropis pallidpennis (Burmeister).

The pronotum situated simply behind the head is a prominent, saddle-shaped structure with lateral lobes the hide nearly every one of the propleura (Fig. 4). The pronotum has plenty of distinctive features helpful in separating both genera and varieties of grasshoppers. The integument (skin) might be virtually smooth in some types and rough and wrinkled in others. The dorsum or disk of the pronotum is divided into left and right halves by a longitudinal ridge, the median carina. The ridge varies among varieties from barely visible to a conspicuously high crest. Transverse furrows run throughout the disk and down the lateral lobes. These furrows, recognized as sulci, reduced into the typical carina and divide the disk into zones, the prozona in front and the metazona in the rear. In many types only one sulcus cut the mean carina when in others 2 or 3 sulci reduced the mean carina. The hind sulcus is thought about the principal sulcus; from its place the size of the prozona and metazona are measured.

The lateral lobes usually type an angle v the disk and are separated indigenous the disc by lateral carinae that, depending upon the species, might be straight and parallel or otherwise incurved or outcurved. The hind margin of the disk different from one acute angle to an obtuse angle, or might be convex, truncate, or emarginate.

The assorted shapes, sizes, and protuberance that the sternal sclerites afford reputable taxonomic characters (Fig. 5). A prosternal spine located between the bases that the front foot is characteristics of members of the spurthroated subfamily. Shapes and also dimensions that the mesosternal and also metasternal lobes and interspaces are valuable in separating certain species and subfamilies.


Figure 5. Sternum of thorax, bottom view. Modeled ~ Melanoplus bivittatus (Say) female.

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Although the three pairs that legs have the very same component parts, the hind pair, adapted for jumping, are much larger than the an initial and 2nd pair and also bear an ext distinctive features. The color and also markings of both the femur and tibia differ among species. The robust femur has several surfaces and also ridges that have been offered names for easy reference (Fig. 6).


Figure 6. Grasshopper hindleg, see of outer and also inner faces. Hindleg that Mermiria bivittata (Serville).

The long and slender tibia bears along its posterior edge a dual row the spines and distally two pairs that articulated spurs or calcars. The number of spines and the length of calcars vary amongst species. The inside medial area the the femur may have a longitudinal ridge bearing a series of stridulatory pegs. Up and down activities of the hindlegs reason the pegs to scrape versus a increased vein on every tegmen, i m sorry produces a tune or signal strange to that types of grasshopper.

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The 2 pairs that grasshopper wing differ in shape, structure, and role (Fig. 7). The front pair, or tegmina, room leathery and narrow through the sides nearly parallel. The hind wings are membranous and also fan-shaped. Compared with the tegmina, the hind pair contribute three time as much to flight lift. Both pairs afford diagnostic personalities that assist in the to know of species. The wing veins, sclerotized tubes offering strength come the wings, vary greatly in thickness. The tegmina differ from immaculate to distinctly spotted or marked. The hindwings the grasshoppers are usually hyaline. Members the one subfamily, the Oedipodinae or bandwinged grasshoppers, have actually wings through a dark submarginal band and have the disk colored.

Figure 7. Bandwinged grasshopper with left wing spread, top view. Composite model

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The hind an ar of the grasshopper’s body, the abdomen, consists of 11 segment (Fig. 1). Segment i is firmly fused with the metathorax and also contains the auditory organ with that is eardrum cover, the tympanum (Fig. 8).


Figure 8. Grasshopper male abdomen, side view and also enlarged side and dorsal see of end. Modeled ~ Melanoplus packardii Scudder.

Segments II come VIII room ringlike in appearance and are separated from one one more by pliable membranes. Each segment has actually a sclerotized tergum that covers not only the peak but likewise the political parties of the abdomen. A sclerotized sternum consists the bottom. Pliable membranes different the terga native the sterna and also with the intersegmental membranes enable the abdomen lot flexibility, a need for respiratory movements, copulation, and also oviposition.

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The terminal segments of the abdomen are reduced and also modified to bear the outside reproductive organs, the genitalia, and the connected structures (Fig. 8). These structures market the most reliable taxonomic characters for separating spurthroated grasshoppers. Structures of the masculine are an ext distinctive 보다 those the the female. The influential paired cerci are generally conical, however in the males of part genera, e.g. Melanoplus, they have actually characteristic sizes and shapes. Likewise, the furcula, a pair that projections from the posterior edge of tergum X the males, different in size and also shape. The epiproct or supraanal plate, although approximately triangular, varies sufficiently in shape and also rugosity to it is in taxonomically useful. The sport in shape and also protuberances that the subgenital plate are also useful in identification. These frameworks are quickly seen with a pocket magnifier that 10x magnification. A couple of distinctive structures, such as the lobes that the aedeagus, call for the use of a stereomicroscope (magnification of 50x and also greater) because that clear identification.

The valves that the ovipositor space sometimes helpful in separating types (Fig 1). The dorsal and also ventral pair the valves have actually various shapes and denticulations. The middle pair of valves are tiny and hidden.

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The sclerotized integument of the abdomen different in color, patterns, and also texture among types and sometimes affords distinguishing taxonomic characters.