mmsanotherstage2019.comistry is the experimental and theoretical study of materials on their properties at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Understanding the relationship between properties and structures/bonding is also a hot pursuit. mmsanotherstage2019.comistry is traditionally divided into organic and inorganic mmsanotherstage2019.comistry. The former is the study of compounds containing at least one carbon-hydrogen bonds. By default, the mmsanotherstage2019.comical study of all other substances is called inorganic mmsanotherstage2019.comistry, a less well defined subject.
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However, the boundary between organic and inorganic compounds is not always well defined. For example, oxalic acid, H2C2O4, is a compound formed in plants, and it is generally considered an organic acid, but it does not contain any C-H bond. Inorganic mmsanotherstage2019.comistry is also closely related to other disciplines such as materials sciences, physical mmsanotherstage2019.comistry, thermodynamics, earth sciences, mineralogy, crystallography, spectroscopy etc.
A mmsanotherstage2019.comical formula is a format used to express the structure of atoms. The formula tells which elements and how many of each element are present in a compound. Formulas are written using the elemental symbol of each atom and a subscript to denote the number of elements. This notation can be accredited to Swedish mmsanotherstage2019.comist Jons Jakob Berzeliu. The most common elements present in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. With carbon and hydrogen present, other elements, such as phosphorous, sulfur, silicon, and the halogens, may exist in organic compounds. Compounds that do not pertain to this rule are called inorganic compounds.
Molecular Geometry and Structural Formula
Understanding how atoms in a molecules are arranged and how they are bonded together is very important in giving the molecule its identity. Isomers are compounds in which two molecules can have the same number of atoms, and thus the same molecular formula, but can have completely different physical and mmsanotherstage2019.comical properties because of differences in structural formula.
A structural formula displays the atoms of the molecule in the order they are bonded. It also depicts how the atoms are bonded to one another, for example single, double, and triple covalent bond. Covalent bonds are shown using lines. The number of dashes indicate whether the bond is a single, double, or triple covalent bond. Structural formulas are helpful because they explain the properties and structure of the compound which empirical and molecular formulas cannot always represent.
Ex. Structural Formula for Ethanol:
Because organic compounds can be complex at times, line-angle formulas are used to write carbon and hydrogen atoms more efficiently by replacing the letters with lines. A carbon atom is present wherever a line intersects another line. Hydrogen atoms are then assumed to complete each of carbon"s four bonds. All other atoms that are connected to carbon atoms are written out. Line angle formulas help show structure and order of the atoms in a compound making the advantages and disadvantages similar to structural formulas.
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Ex. Line-Angle Formula for Ethanol:
Ex. Methane on left, Ethene on right
Functional groups are atoms connected to carbon chains or rings of organic molecules. Compounds that are within a functional group tend to have similar properties and characteristics. Two common functional groups are hydroxyl groups and carboxyl groups. Hydroxyl groups end in -OH and are alcohols. Carboxyl groups end in -COOH, making compounds containing -COOH carboxylic acids. Functional groups also help with nomenclature by using prefixes to help name the compounds that have similar mmsanotherstage2019.comical properties.