In the 19th century, organic philosophy branched out right into the specialty sciences, Darwin’s concept of evolution created uproar and an excellent progress was made in technology.

At the so-called people exhibitions that were very popular in the 19th century, curiosities from far-off lands were on display, as well as developments in science and technology. The good Exhibition in London in 1851, in particular, attractive a an excellent deal of fist - below the exhibition to be gathered in the crystal Palace, a colossal structure of glass and cast iron. The structure style to be innovative, and the crystal Palace came to be a symbol of England as the flagship that industrialism. The Industrial revolution began in an excellent Britain from around 1760, and also reached the rest of Europe during the 19th century.

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While the Crystal royal residence signaled a brand-new era, it can likewise be viewed as a continuation of the rationalism the the knowledge - the light that shone with the entire structure could reference the unexplored elements that were illuminated, systematised and also passed on. The photo shows part of the exhibition in the greenhouse-like crystal Palace.

"It is certainly correct to explain the rampant nervousness as one of the best curses of modern society. Not just does it testify come the increasing frequency of mental illness and suicide, but it contributes significantly to mark our time through its singular character. The higher speed, i m sorry nowadays has actually come right into existence, the unrest and haste that characterises all circumstances, is the expression because that an intensive internal life; but the better the needs made ~ above the worried system, the easier it is drained the its power, the sooner it loses its resistance. (...) Herein us may also search for among the factors that we, despite every one of our triumphs in the sciences and the round of useful inventions, have far from completed a golden e of health, pleasure or satisfaction.”

This is exactly how the Danish physician (and brothers of the writer Henrik Pontoppidan), Knud Pontoppidan, described the psychological consequences of life in the modern city. Quote indigenous Neurasthenia, A donation to the summary of the nervousness of ours age, 1886.

While the Crystal royal residence signaled a new era, that can also be viewed as a continuation of the rationalism that the knowledge - the light the shone v the entire structure could reference the unexplored elements that to be illuminated, systematised and also passed on. The picture shows component of the exhibition in the greenhouse-like decision Palace.

Technology carried many changes: The vapor engine to be introduced, and also the railroad conveniently spread. The telegraph, the photograph and also the vehicle were invented, and also people flocked to the cities through the arrival of industrialisation. The appearance of nervous disorders was traced to the hectic city life, wherein horse-drawn carriages, automobiles and people were fighting for room and civilization wondered even if it is the person body would be damaged by travel in a train pulled by a steam locomotive in ~ a speed that to be not natural for the body.

Turner and also the industrial Revolution

In Rain, heavy steam and speed – the great Western Railway (1844) through Joseph Mallord wilhelm Turner (1775-1851), a heavy steam locomotive viewpoints from a distance. The image can be interpreted as a reflection of industrialisation - the vapor locomotive passes over The an excellent Western Railway leg – an innovative construction, the safety of which remained in doubt, however which is tho in use today. The river is the Thames and the see looks east, in the direction of London.

One doubter remarked that one have to hurry to view the painting before the locomotive had actually driven the end of the canvas. Out of the tenderness tones of the landscape, the locomotive and the dark nuances the the bridge stand out clearly and the diagonal lines that the direct perspective show the rate of the train – Turner mirrors not just the adjust that society underwent, but likewise the boosted speed that life in Turner’s time.

Where the train and also the bridge deserve to be stated to stand for culture, person constructions, the is surrounded by the natural atmosphere - the river, the rain and also the sky. The closer one it s okay to the horizon line, the harder the is come distinguish between rain, steam, landscape, bridge and maker - culture and nature, which room traditionally set up as opposites, blend together.

Nature and also culture

In Turner’s Snow Storm - Steam-boat off a Harbour’s Mouth (1842), on the various other hand, that is nature that has actually overtaken one of the newly invented symbols of industrialism - the steamship. The painting depicts a violent storm wherein a delivery is simply barely discernable. In the almost abstract painting, the dramatic contrast between light and shadow, the diagonal line lines and the reality that that is nearly impossible come distinguish in between sky and also sea add to the viewer being left through a feeling of chaos.


Snow Storm – Steam-boat turn off a Harbour’s Mouth is working v a motive and uses results that can be provided to evoke the feeling of the sublime. The sublime is a concept that to be especially developed by thinkers in the 18th century - one of these thinkers was Immanuel Kant, who believed that splendid or powerful natural phenomena can awaken the feeling of miscellaneous overwhelming, virtually incomprehensible - the emotion of the sublime. When in the 18th century they to a greater degree theorised around the sublime, the Romantics began to shot to evoke the emotion of the sublime in the so late 18th century and early 19th century, with poems about, and also paintings of, nature’s power and might.

Turner was among the painters who were inhabited by organic phenomena such together volcanic eruptions, storms and also towering mountains, and also can for this reason be associated with Romanticism. In art, Romanticism can be seen as a reaction against the rationalism that had actually been dominant in the 18th century, and Neoclassicism’s an ext straightforward design. The Romantics were involved with feeling, individual expression, genius and also going beyond.

The romantic philosophy of nature

It to be not only in art that Romanticism had its time. In the romantic philosophy of nature, i beg your pardon primarily had actually followers in Germany, England and also Scandinavia, no difference was made between art and science - art was seen as a scientific research and critical foundation for scientific progress.


In this paint by Erik Henningsen, mirroring a festive banquet at a Scandinavian conference of herbal scientists in 1847, that is summer, the colours are clear and the flags space waving, if prominent numbers in the arts and sciences concentratedly hear to H. C. Ørsted’s speech. That is significant that the irradiate that falls on the faces of the listeners seems to come from where Ørsted is, nevertheless of the listener’s position. Light together a metaphor for knowledge and education, i m sorry was an especially in vogue throughout the Enlightenment, is used right here by Erik Henningsen.

The romantic herbal philosophy, where one sought come raise morality, science and also art to a greater level, deserve to be viewed as a further development of science and also the Enlightenment id in the future. Nature romantics promoted the idea that the brilliant scientist, who by seeing science as a component of a bigger whole, could discover previously unknown relationship in nature.

One the those that spoke in favour of the romantic viewpoint of nature was the Danish physicist, chemist and pharmacist Hans Christian Ørsted (1777-1851), who uncovered that electrical currents develop magnetic fields. Because that Ørsted science was a method of linking the true, the good and the beautiful and also Ørsted was absolutely not without influence in scientific circles in Denmark.

However, by the moment of Ørsted’s death, the romantic ideology of nature began to slip right into the elevator in favour that positivism, i m sorry emphasised expertise through experience.

Charles Darwin and evolution

For Ørsted, as for plenty of others, faith and science complemented each other as parts of a bigger whole. The relationship in between science and religion was adjusted drastically through Charles Darwin’s (1809-82) publication of On the beginning of Species in 1859. Here Darwin laid out his theory of evolution, which confirmed that human evolution was because of natural selection, rather than a an outcome of production in 6 days.


In On The origin of Species Darwin mentioned countless examples of the adaptation the different species and used fossils and finches from the Galapagos islands as proof for his theory of evolution. The illustration is by the ornithologist and also artist man Gould (1804-81). The is stated that it was Gould who mentioned to Darwin that you could connect the features of the birds to the environment they came from.

The conflict between the Christian production story and Darwin’s theory of advancement created controversy in Darwin’s residence country and internationally. Darwin was soon the victim that a number of cartoons. That is stated that a picture is worth an ext than a 1000 words. Caricatures like this deserve to be effective disagreements - below Darwin’s credibility together a researcher, and also his theory, are moved to extremes and also ridiculed.

In the caricature, the qualities of a person or a case are exaggeration so that the pictured is collection in a humorous or satirical light. Darwin’s concept of the relationship between man and ape result in illustrations like this, i beg your pardon was published in Hornet Magazine in 1871, where Darwin’s head is inserted on a monkey’s body.

"When us look in ~ the plants and also bushes clothes an entangled bank, we are tempted to attribute their proportional numbers and kinds to what we speak to chance. Yet how false a watch is this! (…) What a struggle in between the numerous kinds of trees should here have gone on throughout long centuries, each annually scattering its seed by the thousand; what war between insect and also insect — in between insects, snails, and also other animals with birds and also beasts of prey — every striving to increase, and also all feeding on each other or ~ above the tree or their seeds and seedlings, or on the other plants which an initial clothed the ground and also thus confirm the development of the trees!”

From On the origins of varieties by way of herbal Selection, or the conservation of Favored gyeongju in the battle for Life by Charles Darwin


However, Darwin’s theory eventually became widely accepted and also in enhancement to revolutionising the philosophy of man and nature, it added to the dispute that adhered to the publishing of On the origin of Species, come a department between science and religion.

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The art of the 19th century saw whatever from romance to the cult of technology and the modern-day condition and a number of artistic styles and movements. Art academies, salons and also critics were leading in specifying tasteful art, but were often challenged by the avant-garde, that experimented, damaged with bourgees values and went versus the prevailing taste.

The avant-garde experiments caused movements such together realism, impressionism and symbolism. The realists sought to reproduce truth without idealisation. For the Impressionists (from the French impression) everything can be the engine - not simply lofty, standard tales, but additionally a train station or a boulevard ~ above a merganser day. The Symbolists filled their pictures with symbols, like the Madonna or the union of opposites, but also symbols that space not easily deciphered - many Symbolists attracted inspiration indigenous the spiritual, and also a painting’s signs can thus be seen as being drawn from a greater consciousness.

In the so late 19th century, arts Nouveau started gaining ground. In Paris, the style’s curving, organic shapes framed the entrances to the metro, which opened up in 1900.

The Illustration reflects Skrik (The Scream) by Edvard Munch (1863-1944) from 1893, which can be watched as an example of the beat with form and content that qualified the art world in the 19th century. Munch was a forerunner the Expressionism.



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The yearning for unity that the organic philosophers connected to Romanticism, contended with the attempt to divide scientific research into an ext specific branches - the latter approach gradually won. Large gatherings wherein scientists can meet to exchange ideas, such as those stop by the society of German organic Scientists and Physicians and the brothers Association because that the breakthrough of Science, were divided into subject-specific groups, and subject-specific associations began to appear.

In the wake up of the conflict that adhered to Darwin’s theory of evolution, many began to argue that religion had actually no ar in scientific studies. In addition, ‘science’ in the 19th century come to approach the modern sense of the word - this particular day we speak to pursuits such together drawing and also archery an abilities rather than scientific researches - the difference is reasonably new. In the 19th century, ‘Science’ began to was standing for theoretical and also systematic research and in 1833, the influential polymath william Whewell (1794– 1866) presented the indigenous ‘scientist’, which concerned replace ‘natural philosopher’.

The portrait reflects H. C. Ørsted and also was painted by C.A. Jensen (1792–1870.)



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In the 19th century, what could be described as one epidemic emerged among women of the age - hysteria (from the Greek hystera, ‘uterus’) – a mental disorder that can be summarised together the body being out of control.

Descriptions the hysteria date back to ancient Egypt, but it to be Hippocrates’ concept that hysteria was led to by the uterus coming to be detached from its natural place in the body, which pertained to dominate the understanding of hysteria.

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In the 19th century, castle attempted to treat hysteria through psychoanalysis, the stimulation that the sex organ and even, in part cases, v a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus). The paint Une leçon clinique à la Salpêtrière (A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière) by André Brouillet indigenous 1887 mirrors the French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot presenting a woman’s hysterics.