Ph.D., History, Boston UniversityJ.D., college of Washington school of LawB.A., History, west Washington University
Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a background teacher specializing in Asian background and culture. She has actually taught in ~ the high school and university level in the U.S. And also South Korea.

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In the 15th and 16th centuries, three great powers arose in a band across western and also southern Asia. The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires established regulate over Turkey, Iran, and also India respectively, in huge part as result of a Chinese invention: gunpowder.

In big part, the successes of the western empires depended on progressed firearms and cannons. As a result, lock are called the "Gunpowder Empires." This phrase was coined by U.S. Chroniclers Marshall G.S. Hodgson (1922–1968) and Willian H. McNeill (1917–2016). The gunpowder empires monopolized the produce of guns and artillery in their areas. However, the Hodgson-McNeill theory isn't today related to as sufficient for the rise of these empires, but their usage of the tools was integral come their military tactics.

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The Ottoman realm in Turkey

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Jean-Francois Camp / AFP / Getty Images

The Safavid dynasty additionally took manage of Persia in the strength vacuum that followed the decline of Timur"s empire. Unlike Turkey, where the Ottomans fairly quickly re-established control, Persia languished in chaos for roughly a century prior to Shah Ismail i (1487–1524) and also his "Red Head" (Qizilbash) Turks were able to defeat rival factions and reunite the nation by around 1511.

The Safavids learned the worth of firearms and artillery early, indigenous the surrounding Ottomans. After the fight of Chaldiran, shaman Ismail developed a corps the musketeers, the tofangchi. By 1598, they had an artillery corps of cannons as well. They successfully battled the Uzbeks in 1528 making use of Janissary-like tactics against the Uzbek cavalry.

Safavid background is rife v clashes and also wars between the Shi'a Muslim Safavid Persians and the Sunni footrest Turks. Early on, the Safavids to be at a disadvantage to the better-armed Ottomans, however they shortly closed the eight gap. The Safavid empire lasted till 1736.


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The 3rd gunpowder empire, India"s Mughal Empire, supplies perhaps the most dramatic instance of modern-day weaponry transporting the day. Babur (1483–1530), who founded the empire, had the ability to defeat Ibrahim Lodi (1459–1526) of the last Delhi Sultanate at the very first Battle the Panipat in 1526. Babur had actually the field of expertise of his command Ustad Ali Quli, that coached the armed forces with footrest techniques.

Babur's victorious central Asian army used a mix of timeless horse cavalry tactics and also new-fangled cannons; the cannon fire spooked Lodi's war-elephants, i m sorry turned and also trampled their own military in your hurry come escape the fearsome noise. After this victory, that was rare for any kind of forces to engage the Mughals in a pitched battle.

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The Mughal empire would endure till 1857when the incoming brothers Raj deposed and also exiled the critical emperor.