EarlyMedievalc. 500–1400Renaissancec. 1400–1600Common practiceBaroquec. 1600–1760Classicalc. 1730–1820Romanticc. 1780–1910Modern and contemporaryModernc. 1890–197520th century1901–2000Contemporaryc. 1975–present21st century2001–present

20th-century classical music

20th-century timeless music to be without a dominant style and also highly diverse.

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History

At the revolve of the century, music was characteristically so late Romantic in style. Composers such as Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss and also Jean Sibelius to be pushing the bounds of Post-Romantic Symphonic writing. In ~ the very same time, the Impressionist movement, spearheaded by Claude Debussy, was being occurred in France. The ax was in reality loathed by Debussy: “I to be trying to do ‘something different—in a means realities—what the imbeciles contact ‘impressionism’ is a hatchet which is together poorly supplied as possible, specifically by arts critics” (Politoske and also Martin 1988, 419)—and Maurice Ravel’s music, likewise often labelled v this term, explores music in many styles not always related to it (see the conversation on Neoclassicism, below).


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Igor Stravinsky 

After the an initial World War, many composers started returning to the past for inspiration and wrote functions that draw aspects (form, harmony, melody, structure) from it. This type of music thus came to be labelled neoclassicism. Igor Stravinsky (Pulcinella and Symphony of Psalms), Sergei Prokofiev (Classical Symphony), Ravel (Le tombeau de Couperin) and Paul Hindemith (Symphony: Mathis der Maler) all created neoclassical works.

Italian composers such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo occurred musical Futurism. This format often tried come recreate daily sounds and also place castle in a “Futurist” context. The “Machine Music” of George Antheil (starting v his 2nd Sonata, “The Airplane”) and Alexander Mosolov (most notoriously his stole Foundry) developed out of this. The procedure of extending musical vocabulary by experimenting all accessible tones to be pushed further by the usage of Microtones in functions by Charles Ives, Julián Carrillo, Alois Hába, john Foulds, Ivan Wyschnegradsky, and Mildred Couper among many others. Microtones are those intervals that are smaller sized than a semitone; human voices and unfretted strings can easily create them by walk in in between the “normal” notes, but other tools will have much more difficulty—the piano and organ have actually no means of creating them at all, as well as retuning and/or major reconstruction.

In the 1940s and 50s composers, notably Pierre Schaeffer, began to discover the applications of technology to music in musique concrète (Dack 2002). The term Electroacoustic music was later on coined to encompass all forms of music involving magnetic tape, computers, synthesizers, multimedia, and also other electronic devices and techniques. Live digital music supplies live electronic sounds in ~ a performance (as opposed to preprocessed sound that are overdubbed throughout a performance), Cage’s Cartridge Music being an early example. Spectral music (Gérard Grisey and also Tristan Murail) is a further development of electroacoustic music that provides analyses of sound spectra to produce music (Dufourt 1981; Dufourt 1991). Cage, Berio, Boulez, Milton Babbitt, Luigi Nono and Edgard Varèse all wrote electroacoustic music.

From the beforehand 1950s onwards, Cage introduced aspects of chance into his music. Process music (Karlheinz Stockhausen Prozession, Aus den sieben Tagen; and Steve Reich Piano Phase, Clapping Music) explores a particular procedure which is basically laid bare in the work. The term speculative music seems to have been coined through Cage that was interested in writing finish works the performed one unpredictable activity (Mauceri 1997, 197), follow to the an interpretation “an experimental action is one the result of which is not foreseen” (Cage 1961, 39). The term is additionally used to define music within specific genres that pushes against their limits or definitions, or else whose strategy is a hybrid of different styles, or incorporates unorthodox, new, distinctly distinct ingredients.

Important social trends often informed music that this period, romantic, modernist, neoclassical, postmodernist or otherwise. Igor Stravinsky and Sergei Prokofiev were specifically drawn come primitivism in their early on careers, together explored in functions such as The Rite that Spring and also Chout. Various other Russians, notably Dmitri Shostakovich, reflect the social influence of communism and subsequently had actually to job-related within the strictures of socialist realism in your music (McBurney 2004). Other composers, such together Benjamin Britten (War Requiem), explored political themes in their works, albeit entirely at their very own volition (Evans 1979, 450). Nationalism to be also an essential means the expression in the early component of the century. The culture of the United says of America, especially, began informing an American vernacular layout of classical music, notably in the works of Charles Ives, john Alden Carpenter, and also (later) George Gershwin. Individual music (Vaughan Williams’ five Variants the Dives and Lazarus, Gustav Holst’s A Somerset Rhapsody) and Jazz (Gershwin, Leonard Bernstein, Darius Milhaud’s La création du monde) were also influential.

In the latter quarter that the century, eclecticism and polystylism came to be important. These, as well as minimalism, new Complexity, and new Simplicity, room more fully explored in their corresponding articles.

Styles

Romantic style

At the finish of the 19th century (often referred to as the Fin de siècle), the Romantic layout was starting to rest apart, moving along assorted parallel mmsanotherstage2019.com, such together Impressionism and Post-romanticism. In the 20th century, the different styles that emerged from the music the the vault century affected composers to follow new trends, occasionally as a reaction to the music, periodically as an extension of it, and both fads co-existed well right into the 20th century. The former trends, such as Expressionism are questioned later.

In the early part of the 20th century, many composers wrote music which was an expansion of 19th-century Romantic music, and traditional crucial groupings such as the orchestra and also string quartet stayed the most typical. Traditional forms such together the symphony and concerto stayed in use. Gustav Mahler and Jean Sibelius are instances of composers who took the traditional symphonic forms and reworked them. (See Romantic music.) part writers host that the Schoenberg’s work is squarely in ~ the late-Romantic heritage of Wagner and Brahms (Neighbour 2001, 582) and, an ext generally, the “the composer that most directly and totally connects late Wagner and the 20th century is Arnold Schoenberg” (Salzman 1988, 10).

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Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism to be a style cultivated in between the two human being wars, i beg your pardon sought to revive the balanced forms and clearly perceptible thematic processes of the 17th and 18th centuries, in a repudiation the what were seen as exaggerated gestures and also formlessness of so late Romanticism. Since these composers usually replaced the useful tonality of their models with extended tonality, modality, or atonality, the ax is frequently taken to imply parody or distortion of the Baroque or classical style (Whittall 2001). Famous examples include Prokofiev’s classic Symphony and Stravinsky’s Pulcinella. Paul Hindemith (Symphony: Mathis der Maler) and also Darius Milhaud additionally used this style. Maurice Ravel’s Le tombeau de Couperin is regularly seen as neo-baroque (an architecture term), though the difference between the terms is not constantly made.