Elements Atoms Compounds Characteristics of Compounds
Determining Ionic Vs. Covalent Molecules Mixtures Vs. Compunds


Any problem that has only one sort of an atom is knownas an element. Because atoms cannot be produced ordestroyed in a mmsanotherstage2019.comical reaction, elements such as phosphorus (P4)or sulfur (S8) cannot be damaged down right into simplersubstances by this reactions.

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Example: Water decomposes into a mixture of hydrogen andoxygen once an electric current is passed through the liquid.Hydrogen and also oxygen, top top the various other hand, cannot be decomposed intosimpler substances. They are as such the elementary, orsimplest, mmsanotherstage2019.comical building material - elements.

Each facet is stood for by a distinctive symbol. The notationfor each aspect can be found on the routine table that elements.

The facets can be divided into three categories that havecharacteristic properties: metals, nonmetals, and also semimetals.Most elements are metals, i m sorry are uncovered on the left and towardthe bottom that the routine table. A grasp of nonmetals areclustered in the upper right corner of the periodic table. Thesemimetals deserve to be uncovered along the dividing line in between themetals and also the nonmetals.


Elements are comprised of atoms, the smallestparticle the has any of the nature of the element.JohnDalton, in 1803, suggest a modern theory that the atom based onthe complying with assumptions.

1. Issue is made up of atom that are indivisible and indestructible.

2. All atoms the an facet are identical.

3. Atoms of different facets have different weights and also different mmsanotherstage2019.comical properties.

4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number to kind compounds.

5. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed. Once a link decomposes, the atoms room recovered unchanged.

Go To atoms Vs. Ions


Elements incorporate to kind mmsanotherstage2019.comical link that space oftendivided right into two categories.

Metals often react with nonmetals to kind ionic compounds.These compounds are composed of positive and an adverse ions formedby including or subtracting electron from neutral atom andmolecules.


Nonmetals incorporate with each various other to kind covalentcompounds, i beg your pardon exist together neutral molecules.


The shorthand notation because that a compound explains the number ofatoms of every element, i beg your pardon is suggested by a subscript writtenafter the symbol because that the element. Through convention, no subscript iswritten when a molecule includes only one atom of one element.Thus, water is H2O and carbon dioxide is CO2.

Characteristics ofIonic and also Covalent Compounds

Ionic Compounds

Covalent Compounds

Contain optimistic and an adverse ions (Na+Cl-)

Exist as neutral molecule (C6H12O2)

Solids suchs together table salt (NaCl(s))

Solids, liquids,or gases (C6H12O6(s), H2O(l), CO2(g))

High melting and also boiling points

Lower melting and also boiling points (i.e., regularly exist together a liquid or gas in ~ room temperature)

Strong pressure of attraction between particles

Relatively weak force of attraction in between molecules

Separate right into charged particles in water to offer a solution that conducts electricity


Remain as very same molecule in water and also will no conduct electricity


Determining if aCompound is Ionic or Covalent

Calculate the difference between the electronegativities oftwo aspects in a compound and the median of theirelectronegativites, and also find the intersection that these values onthe number shown listed below to aid determine if the compound is ionicor covalent, or metallic.


Practice difficulty 1:

For each of the complying with compounds, predict even if it is you would suppose it to it is in ionic or covalent.

(a) chromium(III) oxide, Cr2O3

(b) carbon tetrachloride, CCl4

(c) methanol, CH3OH

(d) strontium fluoride, SrF2

Click below to check your answer to Practice difficulty 1

Practice difficulty 2:

Use the adhering to data to propose a method of distinguishing in between ionic and covalent compounds.

Melting point ( oC) Boiling suggest ( oC)
Cr2O3 2266 4000
SrF2 1470 2489
CCl4 -22.9 76.6
CH3OH -97.8 64.7

Click right here to check your answer to Practice trouble 2

Practice problem 3:

Which that the following compounds should conduct one electric existing when dissolved in water?

(a) methanol, CH3OH

(b) strontium fluoride, SrF2

Click below to check your answer to Practice trouble 3


A molecule is the smallest bit that has any kind of of theproperties the a compound. The formula for a molecule should beneutral. As soon as writing the formula because that an ionic compound, thecharges on the ions have to balance, the variety of postive chargesmust equal the number of negative charges.


CaCl2 Balanced formula has 2 optimistic charges (1 calcium ion through +2 charge) and also 2 an unfavorable charges (2 chloride ions v a -1 charge)
Al2(SO4)3 Balanced formula has 6 positive charges (2 aluminum ions v a +3 charge) and also 6 an adverse charges (3 sulfate ions v -2 charge)

Mixtures Vs. Compounds

The law of continuous composition states thatthe proportion by mass of the elements in a mmsanotherstage2019.comical compound isalways the same, regardless of the resource of the compound. Thelaw of continuous composition deserve to be offered to identify betweencompounds and also mixtures of elements: Compounds have actually aconstant composition; mixtures carry out not. Water is always88.8% O and 11.2% H by load regardless that its source. Brass isan instance of a mixture of 2 elements: copper and also zinc. It cancontain as small as 10%, or as much as 45%, zinc.

Another difference between compounds and also mixtures that elementsis the ease with which the elements can be separated. Mixtures,such as the atmosphere, contain two or more substances that arerelatively simple to separate. The individual components of amixture deserve to be physically be separate from every other.

mmsanotherstage2019.comical compound are an extremely different native mixtures: Theelements in a mmsanotherstage2019.comical compound can only be separated bydestroying the compound. Some of the differences between mmsanotherstage2019.comicalcompounds and mixtures of facets are depicted by thefollowing example using raisin bran and "Crispix.".

Raisin bran has the complying with characteristic nature of a mixture.

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The cereal does not have actually a constant composition; the proportion of raisins to bran flakes changes from sample to sample. that is basic to physically different the two "elements," to pick out the raisins, for example, and also eat castle separately.

Crispix has actually some that the characteristic properties of a compound.

The proportion of rice flakes come corn flakes is constant; the is 1:1 in every sample. there is no means to separate the "elements" without breaking the bond that organize them together.