Frequently asked Questions around Magnets & Magnetism

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Here room answers to many typical questions that world have about magnets and also magnetism about the history, magnetic materials, magnetic properties, magnetic orientation, magnetic poles and more. For an ext technical info around these areas, visit our Magnetics-101-Design Guide.

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1.0 A short HISTORY

The ancient Greeks and also Chinese discovered that certain rare stones, referred to as lodestones, were naturally magnetized. This stones can attract small pieces of stole in a seemingly magical way, and were uncovered to always point in the same direction when allowed to swing freely, exposed by a item of string, or floating on water. Beforehand navigators provided these magnets as rudimentary compasses to help them identify their direction while in ~ sea.

The indigenous "magnet" comes from Magnesia, a district in Thessaly, Greece where it is believed that the first lodestone was mined.

Over the years, magnets have evolved into the high-strength products we have today. It was uncovered that by developing alloys of assorted materials, one can create similar effects to those found in herbal lodestone rocks, and increase the level of magnetism.

However, it was not till the 18th century that the very first man-made magnets to be created. Progress in developing stronger magnetic alloys was an extremely slow until the 1920s once alnico magnet materials (an alloy the nickel, aluminum and also cobalt) were formulated. Ferrite magnets were occurred in the 1950s and rare-earth magnets in the 1970s. Because then, the scientific research of magnetism has grown exponentially, and also extremely an effective magnetic materials have made miniature and an effective devices possible. (top)

2.0 THE BASICS

What is a magnet?

Magnets can be made by place a magnetic material, such as iron or steel, in a strong magnetic field. Permanent, temporary, and electromagnets deserve to be created in this manner.

The atoms forming materials that deserve to be conveniently magnetized such as iron, steel, nickel, and cobalt are arranged in little units, referred to as domains. Every domain, although microscope in size, includes millions that billions that atoms and also each domain acts like a small magnet. If a magnetic product is inserted in a solid magnetic field, the individual domains, i m sorry normally allude in all directions, will gradually swing approximately into the direction of the field. They likewise take over surrounding domains. When most of the domains are aligned come the field, the material becomes a magnet. (top)

Domains before magnetization

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Domains ~ magnetization

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What go a magnet do?

Magnets carry out the adhering to things:

Attract details materials, such together iron, nickel, cobalt, specific steels and other alloys.Exert one attractive or repulsive pressure on various other magnets (opposite poles attract, like poles repel).Have an impact on electrical conductors when the magnet and conductor are moving in relationship to each other.Have an impact on the route taken by electrically charged particles traveling in free space.

Based on these effects, magnets transform energy from one form to another, without any permanent lose of their own energy. Examples of magnet attributes are:

Mechanical to mechanical, such as attraction and also repulsion.Mechanical come electrical, such as generators and microphones.Electrical come mechanical, such as motors, loudspeakers, charged fragment deflection.Mechanical come heat, such as eddy current and hysteresis talk devices.

How are magnets made?

Modern magnet materials are made with casting, pressing and also sintering, compression bonding, injection molding, extruding, or calendaring processes. When manufactured, magnets often need come be more processed by grind or other machining processes, and then assembled into a next level assembly. Visit our production andassembly web page to learn more about our custom machining andassembly capabilities. (top)

Are over there different species of magnets available?

There space three types of magnets: irreversible magnets, short-term magnets, and electromagnets.

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Temporary magnets behave together magnets when attached to or close come something the emits a magnetic field, yet lose this characteristic once the resource of the magnetic ar is removed.

There are countless different varieties of irreversible magnet materials, each v their own distinct characteristics. Each material has a family members of qualities that have actually properties slightly different from each other, though based upon the same composition. (top)

What are long-term magnets make of?

Modern permanent magnets are made of distinct alloys that have been found through research to create increasingly far better magnets. The most typical families of irreversible magnet materials today are made out of aluminum-nickel-cobalt (alnicos), strontium-iron (ferrites, also known together ceramics), neodymium-iron-boron (a.k.a. Neodymium magnets, or "super magnets"), and samarium-cobalt. (The samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron families are jointly known as the rare-earths). (top)

What are Rare earth Magnets?

Rare earth magnets space magnets that space made out of the rare-earth team of elements. The most common rare-earth magnets space the neodymium-iron-boron (neo magnets) and samarium cobalt (SmCo magnets). (top)

What is a temporary magnet?

Soft steel and details iron alloys, such together permalloy (a mixture that iron and also nickel) can be an extremely easily magnetized, even in a weak field. As shortly as the ar is removed, however, the magnetism is lost. These products make great temporary magnets, like those supplied in telephones andelectric motors. (top)

What room electromagnets?

Electromagnets are used when very strong magnets space required. Electromagnets are created by placing a steel core (usually an iron alloy) inside a coil of wire the carries an electric current. The electrical energy in the coil produces a magnetic field. The stamin of the electromagnet depends on the strength of the electrical current and the number of coils the wire. The polarity depends on the direction the the present flow. When the current flows, the main point behaves prefer a magnet, but as soon as the current stops, the magnetic properties room lost. Electric motors, televisions, maglev trains, telephones, computers, and many other contemporary devices usage electromagnets. (top)

What room eddy currents?

These are electric currents that room induced as soon as a magnetic field moves in relation to an electrical conductor that has been put within with of the magnetic field. In turn, these eddy currents produce a magnetic ar that acts to avoid the relative movement of the initial magnetic field and also electrical conductor. (top)

What perform magnets cost?

Magnet materials can vary significantly in expense from one to the other. Right here is an almost right guide regarding magnet costs: