You are watching: 1. nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium occurs in the
Mass: 1.989x1030 kg Radius: 695,000 kilometres (equator) typical Density: 1.410 gm/cm3 Rotation Period: 25 - 36 work to escape Velocity: 618.02 km/sec Luminosity: 3.839 x 1026 watts size (Vo): -26.8 surface ar Temp: 5,780 K (mean) Age: 4.5 billion year
In the main point of the sunlight hydrogen is being converted into helium. This is referred to as nuclear fusion. That takes four hydrogen atom to fuse into each helium atom. Throughout the process some the the massive is converted into energy. massive of 4 H atoms: 4.03130 AMU massive of 1 that atom: 4.00268 AMU 1 atom Mass Unit (AMU) equals 1.67x10-27kgs The difference between the fixed of 4 H atoms and also 1 that atom is 0.02862 AMU i beg your pardon is just 0.71% that the original mass. This small portion of the massive is converted into energy. If 4 grams (1/8 ounce) that H space converted to He, only 2.8x10-3 grams the the massive is converted to energy: how much energy is produced from converting such a small amount of mass? We deserve to calculate by making use of Einstein"s renowned formula. E = mc2 E = (2.8x10-3 grams) x c2 E = (2.8x10-6 kgs) x (3x108m/sec)2 E = 2.6x1011 joules Enough power to keep a 60-watt light bulb shining because that over 100 years! The sunlight has various layers with various properties, this layers are composed of product that is around 75% hydrogen and 25% helium by mass. Just put, the sunlight is a an excellent ball of gas, hot enough to bright in every tier. In the really innermost component of the Sun, dubbed its core, the temperature is about 15 million Kelvins, the thickness is 150 times the of water, and also the pressure is over 200 billion times better than atmospheric pressure below on Earth. This heavy, sweltering ar is where the Sun"s power is created via a procedure known together thermonuclear fusion. While blend is daunting to mimic ~ above Earth, the core of the Sun and other stars is a perfect atmosphere for it. Here, the temperatures room high enough for hydrogen nuclei to smash with each other and kind helium nuclei, publication tremendous quantities of energy in various forms. Energy produced in the kind of irradiate keeps bouncing roughly inside the Sun, together though the sunlight were made completely of mirrors. A fragment of light have the right to take much more than 30,000 years to with the surface and also escape! power in the type of tiny particles referred to as neutrinos, however, deserve to travel directly out of the Sun and also into the Solar System. Neutrino observatories on planet measure the constant wash of these tiny, fast-moving particles. The evident visual magnitude of the sun is -26.8, making it appear about 10 billion (10,000,000,000) times as bright as the next brightest star, Sirius. The pure magnitude that the Sun, the magnitude it would have actually at a street of 10 parsec or 32.6 irradiate years, is +4.8. Amongst the brightest stars we have the right to see v the naked eye, over there is only one, alpha Centauri, through a similar absolute size to the Sun. Many of the remainder are intrinsically far brighter. irradiate takes about 500 secs (8 1/3 minutes) to travel from the sun to the Earth. The mean distance come the earth from the facility of the sunlight is around 149,000,000 km, or 93,000,000 miles; a distance well-known as an astronomical unit (AU). There are over 63,000 AU in 1 irradiate year. 1 AU is about 0.000016 irradiate year. The nearest star, alpha Centauri, is 4.3 light years distant, or about 280,000 AU.
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task on the solar surface, photograph by Brad Snowder.